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Objective-C

From: Foundations of Programming: Fundamentals

Video: Objective-C

Objective-C is one of the older languages on the list. Invented in the early 80s as an object oriented version of C, it really is the C language with some extra stuff added to it. That extra stuff makes it object-oriented. The way it's used these days one of the benefits of using Objective-C is it comes with a large library referred to as Cocoa which we will talk about in a moment. It is a compiled language. Not interpreted and not one that uses intermediate bytecode.

Objective-C

Objective-C is one of the older languages on the list. Invented in the early 80s as an object oriented version of C, it really is the C language with some extra stuff added to it. That extra stuff makes it object-oriented. The way it's used these days one of the benefits of using Objective-C is it comes with a large library referred to as Cocoa which we will talk about in a moment. It is a compiled language. Not interpreted and not one that uses intermediate bytecode.

And although, it's a high-level language, it is one where you need to be a bit more aware about memory management than things like Java or the .NET languages. It uses something called reference counting, where we keep track of the objects that we create and whether we're done with them or not. Although advances in the language means that this is becoming less and less of an issue, but because of that I wouldn't say it's a particularly friendly language for beginners. You really need kind of an intermediate level of skill to be messing with Objective-C.

However, you maybe highly motivated to do this. Because one of the reasons that Objective-C has grown enormously in popularity is that this is the language we use for Apple development, whether that's iOS development like the iPhone or the iPod or a Macintosh desktop development. And it's the language that was used to build the OS X operating system or at least large parts of it. So it's not going anywhere anytime soon. So here is the question: what does it look like? Well, as the name might suggest quite close to C. We have the curly braces, we have the semicolons at the end of the line.

However, it's one of the stranger looking languages, because there are a quite a few things that aren't shared across other languages. We still have the main section which is denoting where our program begins. But while you'll see are a lot of words that begin with NS everywhere and this is really an old history lesson. Objective-C was used by the company NeXTstep to build their operating system and when that was bought by Apple, it brought a lot of that with it. So when you see example programs written in Objective-C, you will often see this NS letter all over the place.

You will also see a lot of square brackets being used. Now usually we'd assume they were denoting arrays, but here that's not the case. Because Objective-C is actually built on top of the C language and what I mean by that is not influenced by C. It is C with extra stuff. The way that we start to use the object- oriented features is we have to mark them out by using things like square brackets. So Objective-C can look a little strange to people used to other languages.

Another odd feature is it's very common to see the @ sign in front of a string. And that's how we actually tell Objective-C that we are working with a string object in that language. And like C we also have a lot of import statements. One of the powers of using Objective-C is we can link to a whole bunch of big libraries full of interesting code that we can get access to. Because Objective-C has been used so long by Apple, they've built enormous amounts of pre-written code that we can used to build Macintosh desktop applications, iPhone applications, and these are wrapped up under the general name of Cocoa.

And if you're interested in getting started with this language, well, there is one key editor or IDE and that is XCode. That is Apple's own integrated development environment for building desktop applications or iPad or iPhone applications or even just simple command line applications. And because this is so Apple oriented, not surprisingly the one key website here is developer.apple.com. This is where you'll find downloads, reference guides, tutorials, and a lot of information about getting started with Objective-C.

If you're interested in writing applications that run natively on Apple hardware, this is the language you want to be looking at.

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This video is part of

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Foundations of Programming: Fundamentals

61 video lessons · 96828 viewers

Simon Allardice
Author

 
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  1. 4m 15s
    1. Welcome
      1m 17s
    2. Making the most of this course
      2m 8s
    3. Using the exercise files
      50s
  2. 22m 11s
    1. What is programming?
      5m 45s
    2. What is a programming language?
      4m 48s
    3. Writing source code
      5m 34s
    4. Compiled and interpreted languages
      6m 4s
  3. 16m 29s
    1. Why JavaScript?
      4m 45s
    2. Creating your first program in JavaScript
      6m 54s
    3. Requesting input
      4m 50s
  4. 31m 38s
    1. Introduction to variables and data types
      5m 16s
    2. Understanding strong, weak, and duck-typed languages
      3m 51s
    3. Working with numbers
      5m 4s
    4. Using characters and strings
      4m 5s
    5. Working with operators
      4m 47s
    6. Properly using white space
      6m 46s
    7. Adding comments to code for human understanding
      1m 49s
  5. 24m 48s
    1. Building with the if statement
      7m 35s
    2. Working with complex conditions
      4m 9s
    3. Setting comparison operators
      6m 59s
    4. Using the switch statement
      6m 5s
  6. 17m 54s
    1. Breaking your code apart
      4m 1s
    2. Creating and calling functions
      2m 56s
    3. Setting parameters and arguments
      6m 7s
    4. Understanding variable scope
      2m 23s
    5. Splitting code into different files
      2m 27s
  7. 13m 31s
    1. Introduction to iteration
      4m 28s
    2. Writing a while statement
      5m 24s
    3. Creating a for loop
      3m 39s
  8. 19m 28s
    1. Cleaning up with string concatenation
      4m 30s
    2. Finding patterns in strings
      8m 3s
    3. Introduction to regular expressions
      6m 55s
  9. 19m 58s
    1. Working with arrays
      5m 46s
    2. Array behavior
      5m 29s
    3. Iterating through collections
      5m 18s
    4. Collections in other languages
      3m 25s
  10. 10m 50s
    1. Programming style
      5m 55s
    2. Writing pseudocode
      4m 55s
  11. 25m 55s
    1. Input/output and persistence
      3m 6s
    2. Reading and writing from the DOM
      8m 11s
    3. Event driven programming
      7m 47s
    4. Introduction to file I/O
      6m 51s
  12. 24m 25s
    1. Introduction to debugging
      5m 57s
    2. Tracing through a section of code
      7m 5s
    3. Understanding error messages
      3m 21s
    4. Using debuggers
      8m 2s
  13. 14m 16s
    1. Introduction to object-oriented languages
      5m 18s
    2. Using classes and objects
      6m 28s
    3. Reviewing object-oriented languages
      2m 30s
  14. 11m 14s
    1. Memory management across languages
      5m 11s
    2. Introduction to algorithms
      4m 2s
    3. Introduction to multithreading
      2m 1s
  15. 29m 20s
    1. Introduction to languages
      1m 42s
    2. C-based languages
      4m 40s
    3. The Java world
      3m 13s
    4. .NET languages: C# and Visual Basic .NET
      6m 17s
    5. Ruby
      3m 4s
    6. Python
      2m 56s
    7. Objective-C
      4m 3s
    8. Libraries and frameworks
      3m 25s
  16. 1m 2s
    1. Where to go from here
      1m 2s

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