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To save time, I'm going to use the console command cake bake to generate the code for the models. Once generated, I'll review the created code to give context about what it means. We'll also customize the generated code. Models can be created manually, but if there's a mechanism that'll save time that doesn't introduce overhead, why not use it? It's better to save time by generating the code. I'm going to switch the terminal. Then, from the project root, I'm going to evoke cake bake.
But this time, I won't specify what I'm baking. Bake will produce a menu of everything that can be generated. What would I like to bake? M for model. Using the database connection Cake will scan the database for table names that it can recognize with plural names. In this case there are two tables, publications and issues. So it's presenting an operation to generate both as a model. An issue can be associated with a publication so I'll create the publication model first. Type two for publication.
The next question is asking what the primary key of the table is. In this case bake guessed it correctly. Publication id, so I'll just press enter. After the primary key is a display field which is used as the human readable label for the record. Cake will recognize columns named title and name. But since it's named publication name, it didn't recognize it. Would I like to choose one? Yes. There are two columns to choose from, lets pick the publication name. Two. Now that the primary key and display field have been specified, do I want to specify validators for user input? Of course, yes. This helps enforce the concept that model should be responsible for data validation, and to ensure that models should conform to the business rules of the application.
I'll get into validation in greater detail in a moment. So, for now, let's add some validation rules. The first field to validate is the primary key. Which is just an integer. I don't ever want users to manually specify a primary key, so I'm going to choose three for blank. Do I want to add another validation rule? Not at this time. The second field, publication name, also requires validation. This time, I'm going to allow humans to specify input. Your first impulse, which I'll admit was mine, was to start with alphanumeric.
However, this only allows letters and numbers. Spaces are not allowed, and cannot be allowed. Therefore, I'm going to specify a custom rule, and will specify a regular expression manually later. While the interface says that I can just provide a regex string, at the time of this writing, the Bake application doesn't handle it correctly. Therefore, I'm going to choose seven for custom. Notice that bake won't prompt me for a regular expression. I'll have to add that later. Then, I'll add a second rule, so yes.
Then 24 for not empty. As a publication must have a name. I'll specify a maximum length to prevent infinitely long names. So I'll choose yes, then 18, for max length. Notice again that I wasn't prompted to specify what the maximum length was. I'll have to do that manually. That's all I need for validation, so I'll say no, no more rules. Following validation are model associations. At this time, I don't need to specify any, so I'll just say no.
That's the final question, and I'll be presented with an overview of what I chose. Does everything look correct? If it looks good, say Y for yes. Cake will bake a model class for publication, which means it generates the necessary code and reports the path. It'll ask if I want to create unit tests. I do not, as that is a more advanced topic. When it's done, just press Q to quit. Now that Cake has generated the code, let's take a look at what we baked, by switching back to the IDE.
Navigate to App>Model. There's a new file in here called Publication.PHP. It's named the same as the model. Opening the file, I can see at the very top there's a static method call. While CakePHP lazy loads classes, meaning they're only loaded when they're needed. The autoloader needs to find the class. Line two, this line tells the app what package the class can be found in. App uses takes two parameters, the class and the package.
So, the first parameter in app model is the class, and model is the package. Next, is the class definition, which extends CakePHP's core. There are two properties defined. Primary key, which contains the column name, publication ID, and display field, containing publication name. Note that both properties use lower CamelCase convention, where the first word is lowercase and the remaining words start with the uppercase. There aren't any explicit declarations for properties that are in the database because there isn't any need to.
Cake does this automatically. Following those two field definitions are the validation rules. The rules are defined in a nested array. The first level is the field that is being validated, followed by the validator name, and any rules that apply. Note that this section is pretty much a placeholder. Other than specifying that the rule is blank, everything else is commented out. Before we proceed, let's learn more about data validation.
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