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CSS3 First Look

An overview of CSS3 transitions


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CSS3 First Look

with James Williamson
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  1. 3m 5s
    1. Welcome
      1m 20s
    2. Using the exercise files
      1m 45s
  2. 31m 30s
    1. What is CSS3?
      5m 26s
    2. The current status of CSS3
      3m 35s
    3. An overview of CSS3 capabilities
      2m 24s
    4. Can you use CSS3 now?
      5m 31s
    5. Detecting support for CSS3
      9m 0s
    6. Understanding vendor prefixes
      5m 34s
  3. 1h 9m
    1. An overview of child and sibling selectors
      3m 11s
    2. Using child and sibling selectors
      7m 17s
    3. An overview of attribute selectors
      3m 19s
    4. Using attribute selectors
      8m 32s
    5. Pseudo-class UI selectors
      5m 56s
    6. Negation pseudo-class selectors
      6m 48s
    7. Target pseudo-class selectors
      5m 39s
    8. Structural selectors
      3m 58s
    9. Nth-child selector syntax
      10m 0s
    10. First, last, and only structural selectors
      5m 39s
    11. Using structural selectors to write more efficient code
      8m 52s
  4. 45m 28s
    1. Color formats in CSS3
      7m 9s
    2. Transparency in CSS3
      9m 10s
    3. CSS3 gradients
      4m 11s
    4. Creating linear gradients
      13m 57s
    5. Creating radial gradients
      11m 1s
  5. 49m 8s
    1. Working with web fonts
      6m 38s
    2. @font-face syntax
      4m 52s
    3. Downloading sample fonts
      6m 5s
    4. Writing @font-face declarations
      7m 57s
    5. Using web fonts
      6m 42s
    6. Using text shadows
      7m 14s
    7. Creating multi-column text
      9m 40s
  6. 50m 55s
    1. An overview of the flexible box model
      4m 42s
    2. Controlling box orientation
      5m 2s
    3. Setting element flexibility
      12m 59s
    4. Distributing boxes
      7m 54s
    5. Controlling box alignment
      12m 38s
    6. Working with box-sizing
      7m 40s
  7. 1h 5m
    1. Using border-radius
      6m 20s
    2. Creating custom rounded corners
      10m 21s
    3. Understanding border images
      5m 15s
    4. Using border images
      8m 52s
    5. Creating box shadows
      8m 58s
    6. CSS3 backgrounds
      4m 55s
    7. Controlling background size
      8m 46s
    8. Creating multiple background images
      6m 4s
    9. Using background-origin
      3m 18s
    10. Clipping background content
      3m 2s
  8. 40m 8s
    1. An overview of CSS3 2D transforms
      4m 26s
    2. Using 2D transforms
      8m 16s
    3. Setting transform origins
      5m 24s
    4. An overview of CSS3 transitions
      5m 0s
    5. Animating CSS properties
      6m 12s
    6. Using easing in animations
      5m 41s
    7. An overview of 3D transforms
      5m 9s
  9. 37m 56s
    1. Understanding media queries
      6m 18s
    2. Strategies for targeting multiple devices
      6m 4s
    3. Writing styles for target screen sizes
      12m 11s
    4. Deploying styles through media queries
      3m 55s
    5. Basing media queries on page orientation
      2m 24s
    6. Targeting media queries for iOS devices
      7m 4s
  10. 1m 6s
    1. Goodbye
      1m 6s

Video: An overview of CSS3 transitions

CSS3 transitions allow us to smoothly animate changes to element properties over a specified period of time. But what's truly remarkable to me is that they allow us to animate these properties based on user interactivity, all without using JavaScript. Transitions are defined in the CSS Transitions Module Level 3 and were originally proposed as a standard by the WebKit team. As you can imagine, WebKit based browsers have been supporting transitions the longest and have the most mature implementations.

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CSS3 First Look
6h 34m Appropriate for all Nov 29, 2010

Viewers: in countries Watching now:

In CSS3 First Look, staff author James Williamson provides an in-depth introduction to the newest CSS standard, detailing its modular format, history, and current level of browser support, while also demonstrating its capabilities and applications. The course includes tutorials on using new selectors, modifying typography and color, working with the box model, and understanding media queries. Exercise files accompany the course.

Topics include:
  • Understanding the history of CSS3
  • Working with the new selectors
  • Adding transparency and gradients
  • Specifying web fonts with @font-face
  • Understanding the advances to page layout
  • Looking at CSS3 box model capabilities
  • Using 2D and 3D transforms
  • Understanding media queries
Subject:
Web
Software:
CSS
Author:
James Williamson

An overview of CSS3 transitions

CSS3 transitions allow us to smoothly animate changes to element properties over a specified period of time. But what's truly remarkable to me is that they allow us to animate these properties based on user interactivity, all without using JavaScript. Transitions are defined in the CSS Transitions Module Level 3 and were originally proposed as a standard by the WebKit team. As you can imagine, WebKit based browsers have been supporting transitions the longest and have the most mature implementations.

Currently the Transitions module is in the working draft stage and it's fairly new compared to other CSS3 modules. Because of this you should expect to see a good bit of change in the standard as it matures. Here is how transitions work. First, you indicate which properties of an element you wish to animate. If those properties change through user interaction or scripting, the animation is triggered. Now the cool thing is that transitions aren't just one way. Once the property is returned to its normal value, for example if somebody is no longer hovering over that element, the change to the original property value is animated as well.

Now the syntax for transitions is pretty straightforward and there are only four transition properties, making it one of the easier CSS3 features to implement. These properties are transition- property, transition-duration, transition-timing-function, and transition-delay. Let's take a closer look at each of these. Transition-property allows you to specify the property or properties that you want to animate. You can use the keyword all to indicate all properties or you can pass the property name directly into the transition-property property. There is really no other way for me to say that.

Now if you want to animate more than one property, but don't want to animate all properties, you can add as many of them as you wish with a comma separated list. Now the specification lists them as comma separated. Simple white space separated values are supported in implementations as well. Transition-duration defines the length of time that properties should animate. Time is given in seconds and if you have more than one property animating, you can specify multiple times for each property. Again, you can separate those with a comma or not. Transition-timing-function is a bit more interesting and certainly more complex.

If you've ever used an animation program, you're probably familiar with the concept of easing. If you haven't, essentially this allows you to speed up or slow down certain parts of the animation. In this regard, even though the animation still occurs over the same period of time, it might speed up at first and then slowdown or gradually speed up as the animation continues. Although you can write your own cubic-bezier curves, that's right, to simulate effects like bouncing, you'll probably be more comfortable using the keywords available.

Let's take a look at those keywords. So we have linear, which is going to animate your transition at a constant speed. We have ease, which is going to start quickly and then slowdown. We have ease-in, where the animation just simply speeds up over time. Ease-out, where the transition slows down over time. And finally ease-in-out. It speeds up and then slows down. Now it sounds like easing, all right? Well, a lot of them seem really similar and to be honest with you, over the course of a short animation, you probably won't notice the difference between a lot of these.

What you will notice, however, is that these timing functions allow your animations to look much more organic. The transition-delay property allows you to pause the start of the animation and is defined in seconds. The default is 0, meaning no delay at all. This allows you to pause transitions to allow items to load or other changes to take place first. I would stress that you should use delays only when you have a concrete reason for doing so. Often if there's no reason for delay, users will assume the application is slow or that there is some problem with the interface.

Now you can pass all of these properties as separate properties, or you can use the transition shorthand property. The shorthand property uses the single transition-property with the property, duration, timing function and delay all passed as space separated values. If you wish to have multiple transitions defined, you simply pass comma Separated transition values. That's pretty cool, right? The order that you pass these is incredibly important. As the first time value would be the duration and the second time value the delay.

If only one time value is passed, it is assumed to be the duration. As you can imagine, with such an early specification support for transitions vary. Firefox 4.0, Safari 3.2, Opera 10.5 and Chrome 4 all support CSS3 transitions to varying degrees. It would be wise to view these features as experimental. Implementations will surely change over time, so currently you'll need to use the vendor prefixes in order to write them.

Find answers to the most frequently asked questions about CSS3 First Look.


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Q: I'm following along with the video "Transparency in CSS3".  James shows us how to achieve transparency in Internet Explorer by going to Kimili.com and entering a HSLA value to generate code for transparency.

Here that code:

background: transparent;-ms-filter: "progid:DXImageTransform.Microsoft.gradient(startColorstr=#BF0E0C0B,endColorstr=#BF0E0C0B)"; /* IE8 */
filter: progid:DXImageTransform.Microsoft.gradient(startColorstr=#BF0E0C0B,endColorstr=#BF0E0C0B); /* IE6 & 7 */ zoom: 1;

When this code is added to my HTML file it removes transparency on browsers that do in fact support it. So I'm left with NO transparency. Why?
A: The problem is in the filter code. If the IE background is called last, the first "transparent" declaration will remove all previous colors, regardless of browser. To resolve this, place the rule inside a conditional comment for IE or remove the "transparent" declaration at the front of the rule.
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