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In this hands-on course, James Williamson demonstrates the concepts that form the foundation of Cascading Style Sheets (CSS), including styling text, adding margins and padding, and controlling how images display. The course also explores the tools needed to work with CSS, the differences between embedded and external styles, how to use selectors to target elements, and what to do when styles conflict.
Welcome back to the styling container element's lab. This is the solution movie and here I want to compare your solutions with mine and along the way we can discuss the thought processes that went into the element formatting. Here I have the main.css file and the index.htm file just in case we need to reference that, open from the Finished files folder in the 05_13 directory. So the first goal that we had was setting a height on the header in the layout style.
So I am just going to scroll down to around line 152 or so, there we go and notice that we have our basic layout styles grouped together, this is to keep the layout style separate from the remainder of the formatting. Makes it really easy if we need to tweak or modify a layout without having to hunt and peck layout styles all throughout our code. So here we just did a very simple header height of 165. Now if I go down a little bit further into this Content region style, I can see I have another header selector here, nothing wrong with that, because you will notice I'm not doing anything with height here and to set the background color that we wanted, you can see that I am going ahead and use the background shorthand notation and I chose to use the RGB value, if you chose to use hexadecimal value that's absolutely fine, there's nothing wrong with that whatsoever.
Going back up just a little bit, we can find the pageFooter selector that I was referencing and here I went ahead and added a height rule of 150px to that, that's going to make sure our pageFooter has enough height to display its content. It also needed a background color and just like I did with a header, I've separated those styles, so I am going to scroll all the way down to about line 672 or so. Yep, there we go. And here again, we see the background- shorthand notation that I used, and I used an RGB color for that.
Now the next thing we needed to style were the banner style. So I am going to scroll up to about line 271, and here are our banner selectors. Now, we had a couple of them that we needed to modify. This is just the banner class selector which is telling the banner region, and then we have the banner space h1 descendent selector that's targeting the h1 inside of the banner as well. So here we have the height of 350px, padding-left, left padding of 50px. Now that's going to move the content inside of that banner region 50px over to the right, and we also have our background image.
Again, I am using the background shorthand notation here, I am going out and grabbing the gallery_banner.jpeg and I'm also telling it no-repeat. Now, its height is 350px as well. So no-repeat really isn't necessary here, because I am not ever going to see it repeat, but just in case it's not a bad idea to go ahead and throw it on there, every single time you are doing a background image and you don't want it to repeat. Now if I scroll down into the banner h1, the heading 1 is the text that's sort of overlaying that banner graphic. You'll notice that what I did to push that text down, was I gave it a padding-top of 290px, so that's basically just going to give it a lot of padding up top, push the text all the way down as far as I wanted to, and it's going to overlay the image that's in the banner region.
So the banner height of 350px is allowing us to see the graphic and the padding top to the banner h1. Now, these aren't cumulative, because the background is not being applied to the h1. If I go over to the index and scroll down to find the banner, you will notice it's being applied to a div. So the padding is being applied to the h1, the height is being applied to the div, the two mix together give us exactly what we want. If I scroll down a little bit further to around line 318, I find the article h2 selector and if you remember for what we wanted to do there, was the border-bottom, so I have applied a bottom border to this, 2px, solid, and I used the color from the color palette above that.
Again, I used the RGB colors there. So that gives that the bottom border that we were wanting there, and notice that I am using the shorthand notation for that, but I am using the side specific shorthand notation. So here I am doing border-bottom for that. The really sort of big objective was those two new sections and I want to show you kind of how I tackled those. I am going to scroll down a little bit to line 336. So I had one of the selectors sort of already in there, so that should have given you a little bit of an idea to where to place these. I have got three selectors in total that are doing all the things I needed it to do.
Now if yours don't look exactly like mine, that's fine, because again, I was extremely vague, as to how you were supposed to do these. I really wanted you to apply a lot of creative thought into how to solve these problems. Okay, so let's talk about what all the styling is doing sort of one by one. Now the news class selector itself is going to be styling the individual sections. So each of those section tags is been installed by this. First we are giving it that sort of tan background color. They are been floated to the left and that was sort of already there for you, but what that is going to do is it's going to cause both of those section tags to appear right beside each other and I applied a margin right to push them away from each other.
So if that wasn't there, they would be budding right up against each other. I mentioned that I wanted them at 50 pixels apart from each other, so I applied a margin right to do that. Now I give them a width of 360px. Because I requested a total width of 400 right? Well, I'm also doing padding. I also requested that you have enough padding in there to push the text away from the edge of the containers, so I have 20px of padding, that's 20px on each side, so it's 40 pixels total of padding. 40+360 gives me my 400px of total width.
I am removing the border, so I am just using border shorthand notation, and I am saying none, so any legacy styling from other elements I am going ahead and stripping that out. I did a border radius, and the syntax I use for border radius, remember, we wanted to do top, left, and bottom, right. So I went ahead and used the four value shorthand notation. I probably could have got a way with using the three and I am doing 15px for top left, 15px for bottom right. I also wanted the font-size to be 90% of the text of the rest of the page. One of the easiest ways to that is just use a font-size value that uses a percentage that is going to shrink the text down compared to the rest of the page.
This was almost enough, but there was a little bit of a problem here. When I applied a margin right to our sections, the left one got a margin run of 50 and the right one got a margin run of 50 and that's going to cause the total width of both of them to be wider than the 800px that I had for the region itself. So what I had to do was I created this selector, and remember this is basically an adjacent selector that says, hey, when you find one of these elements directly following another one, apply no margin right to that.
So that essentially strips the right margin from the second one and allows both of those to sit on the same line. Finally, the last thing that I did was I went in, I targeted the h2 and striped out the margin top that was being applied by a different rule. So if I go in and preview that, I can see as I scroll down, I am getting the rounded corners where I want them, they are aligning themselves to each other just fine. I get 50px of space in between them, I get my 20px of padding on either side. I don't have a border on top of this, and I don't have a lot of extra margin up on top of this heading, so that looks exactly the way I wanted to.
My footer is the height and the color that I needed, my header is the height and the color I needed, the banner is displaying the background image the way it is supposed to, and this text is being pushed down by 290px based upon its padding, which is positioning it on my banner exactly where I want. Now I know this new section down here was probably a little more complicated than some of the other elements you've worked with, so your styles might not look exact like mine, and that's fine. But I've got to be honest with you. Overall, those two sections are quite typical of the element regions that are going to be styling when you're defining page regions.
Now keep in mind when styling those regions that padding borders width and even occasionally margins are used to determine the total width of an element and how much space it takes up in the layout. So it's obviously very important to understand these properties and how they relate to each other when you're styling your page regions.
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