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CSS gives Web designers control over the appearance of their web sites by separating the visual presentation from the content. It lets them easily make minor changes to a site or perform a complete overhaul of the design. In CSS Web Site Design, instructor and leading industry expert Eric Meyer reviews the essentials of CSS, including selectors, the cascade, and inheritance. The training also covers how to build effective navigation, how to lay out pages, and how to work with typography, colors, backgrounds, and white space. Using a project-based approach, Eric walks through the process of creating a Web page, while teaching the essentials of CSS along the way. By the end of the training, viewers will have the tools to master professional site design. Exercise files accompany the training videos.
So what we're going to do here in this chapter, throughout this series of videos is assemble all the pieces to create this design. This is basically there and appoint in terms of where we go here, but our start point is this, where we have no author styles whatsoever. This is going to go a little bit differently than the rest of the title that in other chapters, what I've done is I've brought up my editor BBEdit and I've typed in styles, rather the subject you to all that, what I'm going to do is, throughout this chapter, is take these little text files, these are little text files and just have fragments of CSS in them and fragments of what we want force final style sheet, so in each case I'm just going to grab a the appropriate file and drag it into BBEdit and let go and BBEdit will just add it in and if your editor supports doing this then you can do the same thing with the fragment files, they're found in your Exercise Files folder, for this chapter.
Otherwise if you need to type, you can always hit pause after one of these and then type in whatever just got added. So we're going to first do the generic styles, so put generic in quotes, what we mean the generic is styles that sort of apply everywhere, they're put to everything. So for example here, I'm styling the body element, taking away the margin and padding so that we don't have the space around the outside of the design, giving the body element a background color and a foreground color and sending the overall font for the page to be small, which is one of those font size keywords and then take a choice between a list of the ground, which is a very common fonts on Mac OSX machines, if that's unavailable use Arial, and if that's unavailable use some font that's sans serif. So, I'm going to save this and hit Reload and you can see that now the font changed a bit and the background colors have come in and the extra space around the edges of the design have gone away.
So we go back to this particular CSS file, the next thing I'm going to do is just drag in fragment two. So the point with this fragment is to remove a text decoration from a elements, which would be hyperlinks and actually nonhyperlink a elements, which it's possible to have just not very common, so that the links won't be underlined. Also in some web browsers, Firefox, notably among them, any image that's inside of an a element gets a border by default that's built into the browser styles. So what we're going to say here is that any image that is descended from an a element, any image inside of an a element, a hyperlink should have no border, so border zero. We've given it a border with a euro and actually a border style of none implicitly and so we save that, go over to Firefox, and if we hit Reload, the underlining on that border have gone away.
Those are again applying throughout the entire document and then the last think we're going to add here, is we're actually going to change the way margins are done on paragraphs. Because of how margin collapsing works as discussed in Chapter 7 we don't actually have to have margins on both the top and the bottom of paragraphs, we can just have margins on the bottom of paragraphs and still have the same separation that they usually do. So what I'm going to say here 's margin 0 0 1em, so no top margin, no right margin or left margin and a 1em bottom margin and if we hit Reload, there really isn't going to be any change at the moment, but the advantage here is that if you have a paragraph that follows a heading, such as happens right here with The Legendary Origins of Tea and then the history of tea and so far, suppose we wanted that paragraph to come right up against the heading so that we had Legendary Origins of Tea heading in there without any space really between them they would merely start with that first paragraph.
Because we've now removed the top margin for paragraphs, all we have to do is remove the bottom margin from the headings and then we get that nice snuggle effect. I bring this up because designers on occasion really want to do this and there was a time that very difficult to do, but with CSS is very easy. So that sets up our global styles or generic styles. In the next step we'll start styling the masthead.
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