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CSS enables you to control the look and layout of a web page much more precisely than you could with HTML alone, but it can be time-consuming to learn. In this workshop, expert developer Candyce Mairs makes styling a quick and easy process, walking you through the process of adding content to a web page and using CSS to position that content. Candyce explains CSS positioning concepts like the CSS box model, floats, and clears and demonstrates how HTML and CSS work together to create the look of your web page. By speaking the same language as the browser, you can learn to work with the browser to place content accurately and easily.
What I want to talk about now is CSS Positioning and CSS Properties. So you use CSS Properties to define the positioning for elements within your page. And you'll see what I mean by that once we move into adding some of these CSS Properties. But lets take a look at where the page is at at this point. I have header.html open. And within this page, I have a single Div tag with an ID of Header. In other words I have a single box of content named Header. Within that box I have an image, and my image right now is 850 pixels wide. So let's take a look at this in the browser to see what it looks like. Here is my image.
Now what you see open at the bottom of the screen, and you can see as I kind of move things around it changes up top, this is Firebug, which is an extension you can add on to Firefox. And it comes in very handy when working in CSS. So I simply have it opened. And I installed Firebug and placed an icon up here. And what that icon does is simply open and close Firebug. I want it opened right now so I'll go ahead and do that.
What you see on the left here, is HTML coding for the page. So, I'm going to open up the Body tag, and I'm also going to open up the Div tag. Now, notice how I hover over these elements, things change up in the Top panel. So when I hover over the Body tag, you can see it shows the blue area up top surrounding or covering up my image itself. And notice it extends all the way across the width of the webpage.
If I hover over the Div tag, that yellow border is removed. And you can see that box extends all the way out across the pages well. But notice what happens when I hover over the Image tag. The blue area is only covering the image itself. This is what Firebug allows you to do. Is kind of view how the browser understands each piece of code within your page. Now when I hover over the Div, it extends all the way across the page. I want to contain this Div.
I want it to be the same width as my image. So it doesn't take up anymore space than the image itself. So I'm going to go back to my page and add some CSS Properties to take care of that. So I'll align this left and within the code area I'm going to move out to the CSS 2 piece. CSS 2 is supported by all browsers. CSS 3, there are properties that vary across browsers, at least at this point in time. So I'm going to remain in CSS 2 and these are all of the CSS Properties that are available.
So if I scroll down you can see there is one called Widths. Now what I need to do in order to add the widths is move out to the HTML tags because it's actually a HTML tag we place those properties inside. So I will drag out the style tag and this is an HTML tag. Within that HTML tag, the CSS interpreter in the browser reads the rules.
So whatever is contained within those style tags, the browser is going to have the CSS piece read. So I'll go back to my CSS Properties. And the first thing I want to set is the Width. So, I'll drag the width up here, as a property. Notice the colon and semi colon are added by coffee cup. If you're typing these out in any other type of editor, you will need to add those. And the width I'm going to choose is 850 pixels because that's the width of my image.
Now you can have space on either side of this colon. But you cannot have a space between the unit of measure and the actual number. So if you put a space between these two, your width won't work. Now I added a width, but I didn't really add a width to anything, any particular content on the page. So what I need to do is finish this up with my style rule. So I need to do a pound Header.
So it's the Header ID I want to make 850 pixels in width. So this is how CSS references the Header ID. The pound sign tells CSS it is an ID. Then I'm going to add a curly bracket here. And notice the program adds it for me. So I can just drag this up. Now I have added a Width between the style tags.
But I have not assigned an element to that width. And I'll show you what I mean. What I need to do is tell CSS what part of the page, what piece of the page, is going to be a width of 850 pixels. So I added a property and a value, but I didn't assign it to any selector. So what I'm going to do is tell CSS the Header ID is what I want to set to 850 pixels in width, and I'm going to place the property in value within those curly brackets.
So here is a selector, in other words, I need to tell CSS, what part of the page is it that I want to make 850 pixels. So that should take care of this div. It should limit it now to 850 pixels. And that's exactly what I wanted to do. So let's take a look in the browser. I will go back to Firebug. Open up the body. And now notice when I hover over the Div, it's 850 pixels. It covers the image perfectly.
If I hover over the image, it remains the same. So I have just set my div property, the width specifically, to the same as my image. And you want to usually assign properties to divs within your page. There's no reason to have this extend all the way out to he right at some point I may want to put some other content up here. So I'll pull this in nice and tight so that my image fits perfectly within that Div tag, so that is how you can control your boxes using CSS Properties.
Now I'm just working with the width at this point. I don't really need to position at all because it is in the top left corner which is exactly where I want it. So the Width property is the only property I need to assign to the Header div. But if I needed to assign more, I just put it between those two curly brackets, add another property. So I can assign as many properties and values as I want to any type of selector. As I move further down the page and I"m not working in the top left corner any longer, I will need more properties and values assigned specifically for the positing piece, but that is how you can add CSS Properties. To any content within the web page its just a matter of what is the content and what are the properties and values you want to assign.
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