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After our overview of the box model, I want to take a moment to familiarize you with the individual properties of the box model, and I want to start with margins and padding. Padding is the space inside of elements that hold the contents of an element away from its edge. You can specify padding in several ways. First, you can define padding individually for each side of an element, and keep in mind, however, that setting padding in only one direction is not the same as setting padding to zero in other directions.
Any existing padding on other sides is still going to apply. You can also use shorthand notation when defining padding. There are four variations on padding shorthand. First, you can define four separate values, separated by white spaces. Now these values are going to apply in order to the top, right, bottom, and left sides respectively. Now if you use three values, the first value will be applied to top, the second value for the left and right sides, and the last value will be applied to the bottom.
If you only use two values, the first value applies to the top and the bottom, while the second value will apply to both the left and right sides. Finally, if you simply use a single value, that value is going to be used for all sides equally. The rules for padding are actually fairly straightforward, and most elements start with no padding at all. However, when width values are set on an element as well, there are couple of things to keep an eye on. Now by default, most elements that are considered block-level elements, like paragraphs, will go ahead and expand to fit the width of their parents.
If you don't define the width for those elements, padding will be added to the inside of the element, which causes the content area to shrink, and sometimes results in the element actually getting taller. If on the other hand, you specify a width, say 100%, that padding will then result in the element actually becoming wider than its parent element, as the padding is actually added to the outside of an element's width. When defining an element width, it's crucial that you factor the element's padding into the equation. Most designers use padding to keep the contents of a box away from its edge.
This can be used to create visual boxes, like pull quotes out of a single element, without using graphics or background images. Padding can also be used to move the contents of an element away from a background image, to give the appearance of custom bullets, or as a way to add decorative touches to elements. Margins represent the space between the elements and are applied outside of an element's edge. While it's not factored into the total width of an element, it does affect the amount of space that an element takes up on that page and is critical to achieving proper spacing between elements.
Unlike padding, many elements do have a default margin that you need do account for when structuring layouts. Later on, we are going to discuss what a CSS reset is, how they affect margins, and the rationale for using them. Margins also use the same syntax as padding, so you can either specify margins for each side individually or use the shorthand notation. For the most part, margins are pretty straightforward, but there is one aspect of margins that tends to trip up even the most experienced of designers. Unlike horizontal margins, vertical margins collapse. That means that if you have two elements stacked one on top of another, only one of the elements' margins are applied.
Take this example. If you have heading one with a bottom margin of 16 pixels and a paragraph with a top margin is 16 pixels, there were only be 16 pixels' worth of space between them, not 32 pixels. This prevents paragraphs and headings from having double spaces between the two of them. If the values are not the same, the higher of the two values is going to be used. There is a lot more to margin collapse, so as you learn CSS, pay particular attention to when vertical margins collapse, why they collapse, and how you can trigger, or prevent it, based on your needs.
As you can imagine, mastering how margins and padding work is a very important part of learning CSS. They're both incredibly important to properly positioning content and establishing relationships between visual elements. Mastering these properties early on can save you from some frustrating moments down the road.
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