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CSS enables you to control the look and layout of a web page much more precisely than you could with HTML alone, but it can be time-consuming to learn. In this workshop, expert developer Candyce Mairs makes styling a quick and easy process, walking you through the process of adding content to a web page and using CSS to position that content. Candyce explains CSS positioning concepts like the CSS box model, floats, and clears and demonstrates how HTML and CSS work together to create the look of your web page. By speaking the same language as the browser, you can learn to work with the browser to place content accurately and easily.
The HTML and CSS Browser Team. And that's what we're going to take a look at. How do these two HTML, being one, and CSS being the other work together as a Browser Team. Well let's take a look. HTML and CSS work together in the browser to display your webpage hopefully in the way you want it to be displayed.
You must add both HTML and CSS code in order to position content. So your working in both of those pieces within the browser. Now this coding you add to both pieces acts or creates a bridge between the two. So the HTML and the CSS can work together. Now this browser team allows you to create CSS rules for the page, and those CSS rules are displayed by the browser itself.
So what do those CSS rules tell the browser? Well there's actually two different types of CSS rules. The first type describes how the box should look, and we talk about that as the formatting side of CSS, and that's the easier side to learn. In other words, what font do we want to use to display this particular text and what size should it be? Along with a variety of other formatting properties within CSS. But we also have the CSS rules that tell the browser where it should be positioned in the window.
In other words where that particular item within the browser should be positioned. So the it there, is referencing whatever page element the browser is reading in terms of code. Now how does positioning work? Well let's take a look at that. Here is the basic layout of the page we're going to create in this course. It has Header area up at the top of the page that contains the name of our company.
Then we have a navigation menu in the left-hand column. And then basically, our pages are comprised of two columns of text. There also is a footer that is going to go at the bottom of the page. That footer area is not going to contain text, it's going to actually store an image at the bottom of our page. So we have five different parts to our webpage. So how can we set up the positioning for this specific page? Well, we start in the HTML side of things.
In our HTML coding, what we need to do is create boxes for content. And we use the DIV tag to create those boxes. We also need to give each box a name and what that does is ID that specific box. So, the browser knows which box you're talking about, especially since your page is going to have multiple boxes or multiple DIV tags on the page.
Now, what about the CSS side of things? Well, CSS is in charge of different things. So, what we do is reference the boxes by that name we gave it an HTML. In other words the ID name, and what that does is tell CSS which box we're talking about and then we can create rules for where to place that specific box that we're talking about. So HTML and CSS work together.
Now, let's talk about some of those positioning basics for our page content. So the first thing you need to do is create a box in HTML using a DIV tag. How do we do that? Well, we create the DIV tag, then we add an ID to the DIV. To give the box a name otherwise it's very confusing to the browser which box you're talking about. Then we create CSS rules for the box using that ID.
So, these bullets are referencing kind of an overview of the process. So I'll be giving you some examples of exactly what I"m talking about in each of these bullets. So we create CSS rules for the box using that ID that we added in HTML. What else do we need to do? Well, the CSS rules tell the browser how the box should look. And where it should be placed and the rules we create can include both of those items within it. So, in other words, we can say okay, this box should look this particular way and it should be placed in this particular spot.
So, we can create one rule to encompass both of those. So, HTML, how do we do that part? And what part does it play? Now let's take a look at the code, so you'll have a better understanding of answering that question. So HTML is used to create a box for content using the DIV tag. Here is a div tag, angle brackets with literally the DIV inside of it. And the DIV tag does have an opening and closing tag, so we do need two of them. Now here's an example.
We have a DIV tag, this one has an ID added to it called header and we plug in our closing tag. So what do we do at that point? Well, page content goes between those two tags. So here's my opening tag, here's my page content, here's my closing tag. So whatever you plan to put in that particular box goes between those two tags. What else do we need to do? Well, we name the box by adding an ID to the code. So within our DIV, we add that id.
This particular box is called header, and we can hook into the CSS piece by using that name. But the basics with regards to why we add this name, well, so the browser knows which box we're talking about. Our header image would go inside that area. And then we would have our closing DIV. Now it is possible to indent here, I could also take this tag and move it over. I could put all of this on a single line, the browser doesn't care, as long as the opening tag and the closing tag surround our image code.
So these do not have to be necessarially perfectly lined up in the browser source code in order for this to work. HTML doesn't care. It is much easier to read, however, if it's lined up. But I just want to mention that to you in case you were not aware and get concerned that, that isn't lined up so it might not work properly. Now, what about the CSS side of things? Well, we've created our HTML. Now we need to create CSS rules using the box name as the selector.
What does that look like? Well we know the box is named header. So what we do is put a pound sign in front of it, and add a left, curly bracket. And I call this a left curly bracket, because it's pointing to the left. Now we put in a specific CSS properties for where to place the box, how to make it look, what color is the background, all of those different items. And we do need a closing curly bracket, notice this one is pointed to the right.
So the postioning properties are placed within these CSS rules. And in using those, that is what a rule would look like. And the float property is a property specifically designed for positioning. So this is a float left, so in other words this is telling the browser take the box called Header and float it left. What we do is use floats and clears to position content. Now there are other ways to position content, but these are generally speaking the best methods to use for your page content.
So there's my header, and I call that particular one an ID because technically on CSS that's an ID. Here's our float left property, and we're all set. Now what we do is assign properties in CSS, to position each individual box. So what this one does is assign the clear property to our footer box. And that is how HTML and CSS work together as a team, to tell the browser where to position the different page elements.
And that's what we are going to take a look at when you actually go to build your pages. So the DIV tag is our friend in HTML. And the ID is our friend in CSS and we'll get those two teaming up to work together to properly display our web pages.
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