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CSS gives Web designers control over the appearance of their web sites by separating the visual presentation from the content. It lets them easily make minor changes to a site or perform a complete overhaul of the design. In CSS Web Site Design, instructor and leading industry expert Eric Meyer reviews the essentials of CSS, including selectors, the cascade, and inheritance. The training also covers how to build effective navigation, how to lay out pages, and how to work with typography, colors, backgrounds, and white space. Using a project-based approach, Eric walks through the process of creating a Web page, while teaching the essentials of CSS along the way. By the end of the training, viewers will have the tools to master professional site design. Exercise files accompany the training videos.
So in this video we're going to see how to bring together various fonts styling properties that we've been looking at and put them into one shorthand property. You can see here that there is already some styling of the main paragraphs here in this particular design, and this was accomplished with the rule you see here. The content P font-family Arial, sans-serif, font-weight bold, font-style italic, font-size smaller. It would be really nice if we didn't have to say all those things, so repetitively we can just say font bold italic smaller Arial, sans-serif and that could take the place of all those other guys which it can, but you'll notice, let met put that back for a second, that I didn't put those together in the same order they were written previously. I said bold italic smaller Arial, sans-serif and there's a reason for that.
In the font shorthand, unlike most other shorthand properties, there are two things that must be present, and they must be present in a specific order and in a specific place and that's the size and the family. If you have a font declaration to the font property, then the value that goes with it has to have size and then family, in that order. So smaller is the size, Arial, sans-serif is the family value. This can be font 1em, Arial, Helvetica, Verdana, sans -serif, doesn't matter, you have to have the size and then the family. They have to be in that order and have taken at the end so if you do anything else like bold or italic, those come before the size and the family.
The weird thing being that I can say font bold italic smaller Arial, sans-serif or I can say font italic bold smaller Arial, sans-serif and the effect would be the same the bold and the italic and if we had small-caps. The small-caps, the font variant, those three can be in any order as long as they come before the size and the family. So it could be small-caps bold italic, small-caps italic bold, bold small-caps italic, whatever. Those three can be in any order, they just have to come before the font size. the font size has to come before the font family.
There you go, it's boldfaced, italicized, small-cap, it's also smaller than and it's Arial and it's sans-serif. This one very sort of subtle thing that most people don't realize, in fact, just about a month before I recorded this, I mentioned, what I'm about to tell you in a seminar setting and some of the people in that seminar were people like Jeffrey Selman and Jason Santamaria and people who do this kind of stuff for living and I told them what I'm about to tell you and most of the people in the audience didn't know this.
Here it is, suppose I just set font smaller Arial, sans-serif. If you look over all what I have here, I have, and let me take out the font family, the font and the font size from before. So I set font-weight bold, font-style italic, font smaller Arial, sans-serif. I hit Reload and I have smaller Arial, and there's no bolding and there's no italics, and here's the reason. With a shorthand property, if you leave out a given value like font-weight or font-style it gets reset to its default. So what I've really done is I've set font-weight bold, font-style italic and then I've set font normal, normal for the weight, the style and the variant, smaller, Arial, sans-serif. So the font- weight bold and font-style italic get blown away by the implicit defaults that are filled into the font declaration right here. So is as if I never said anything about bold or italic. So if you want to use a shorthand property and you want these like boldface and italic, those have to be in the font declaration. Again worry, they need to be before the size or family and so there you go, tadaaa!, bold facing and italics.
Here's the other thing and this is completely without precedent in CSS, it is the only place you can do something like this. Guess what that is? You're right. If you watched the first video in this chapter, it's the line-height. You can in the font shorthand say the font size in then slash, the line-height and that's sort of the exception to, the last two things have to be the font size and the font family, they have to be in that order. You can stick the line height in, sort of as part of the font size, so you can say, I want this font to boldfaced and italicized and the font size should be smaller, but the line-height should be 1.5 times what ever that smaller turns out to be and use Arial and sans-serif and there you go.
It spreads out. Now what we just saw here, smaller/1.5em, in this case it's going to turn out to be the same thing, but remember, or if you haven't seen it, go back and watch the first video about line-heights, for the subtle differences between 1.5 and 1.5em when it comes to line-height. So you can do this if you like, you can throw in your line-height here, or if you really want it to, you could say line-height 1.5 and then font bold, whatever, because, aha, but you can't, it's like the default is going to get filled in there.
So if you're going to have the line-height in there, make sure it comes after the font declaration, cause otherwise, if you leave it out, then the line-height is going to get reset to normal, which is whatever the browser's default is. So there you have it. The ins and outs of the font shorthand and how you have to be a little bit careful with it, because if you leave anything out, you might accidently reset some other value in a way that you wouldn't expecting.
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