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Font shorthand

From: CSS Web Site Design

Video: Font shorthand

So in this video we're going to see how to bring together various fonts styling properties that we've been looking at and put them into one shorthand property. You can see here that there is already some styling of the main paragraphs here in this particular design, and this was accomplished with the rule you see here. The content P font-family Arial, sans-serif, font-weight bold, font-style italic, font-size smaller. It would be really nice if we didn't have to say all those things, so repetitively we can just say font bold italic smaller Arial, sans-serif and that could take the place of all those other guys which it can, but you'll notice, let met put that back for a second, that I didn't put those together in the same order they were written previously. I said bold italic smaller Arial, sans-serif and there's a reason for that.

Font shorthand

So in this video we're going to see how to bring together various fonts styling properties that we've been looking at and put them into one shorthand property. You can see here that there is already some styling of the main paragraphs here in this particular design, and this was accomplished with the rule you see here. The content P font-family Arial, sans-serif, font-weight bold, font-style italic, font-size smaller. It would be really nice if we didn't have to say all those things, so repetitively we can just say font bold italic smaller Arial, sans-serif and that could take the place of all those other guys which it can, but you'll notice, let met put that back for a second, that I didn't put those together in the same order they were written previously. I said bold italic smaller Arial, sans-serif and there's a reason for that.

In the font shorthand, unlike most other shorthand properties, there are two things that must be present, and they must be present in a specific order and in a specific place and that's the size and the family. If you have a font declaration to the font property, then the value that goes with it has to have size and then family, in that order. So smaller is the size, Arial, sans-serif is the family value. This can be font 1em, Arial, Helvetica, Verdana, sans -serif, doesn't matter, you have to have the size and then the family. They have to be in that order and have taken at the end so if you do anything else like bold or italic, those come before the size and the family.

The weird thing being that I can say font bold italic smaller Arial, sans-serif or I can say font italic bold smaller Arial, sans-serif and the effect would be the same the bold and the italic and if we had small-caps. The small-caps, the font variant, those three can be in any order as long as they come before the size and the family. So it could be small-caps bold italic, small-caps italic bold, bold small-caps italic, whatever. Those three can be in any order, they just have to come before the font size. the font size has to come before the font family.

There you go, it's boldfaced, italicized, small-cap, it's also smaller than and it's Arial and it's sans-serif. This one very sort of subtle thing that most people don't realize, in fact, just about a month before I recorded this, I mentioned, what I'm about to tell you in a seminar setting and some of the people in that seminar were people like Jeffrey Selman and Jason Santamaria and people who do this kind of stuff for living and I told them what I'm about to tell you and most of the people in the audience didn't know this.

Here it is, suppose I just set font smaller Arial, sans-serif. If you look over all what I have here, I have, and let me take out the font family, the font and the font size from before. So I set font-weight bold, font-style italic, font smaller Arial, sans-serif. I hit Reload and I have smaller Arial, and there's no bolding and there's no italics, and here's the reason. With a shorthand property, if you leave out a given value like font-weight or font-style it gets reset to its default. So what I've really done is I've set font-weight bold, font-style italic and then I've set font normal, normal for the weight, the style and the variant, smaller, Arial, sans-serif. So the font- weight bold and font-style italic get blown away by the implicit defaults that are filled into the font declaration right here. So is as if I never said anything about bold or italic. So if you want to use a shorthand property and you want these like boldface and italic, those have to be in the font declaration. Again worry, they need to be before the size or family and so there you go, tadaaa!, bold facing and italics.

Here's the other thing and this is completely without precedent in CSS, it is the only place you can do something like this. Guess what that is? You're right. If you watched the first video in this chapter, it's the line-height. You can in the font shorthand say the font size in then slash, the line-height and that's sort of the exception to, the last two things have to be the font size and the font family, they have to be in that order. You can stick the line height in, sort of as part of the font size, so you can say, I want this font to boldfaced and italicized and the font size should be smaller, but the line-height should be 1.5 times what ever that smaller turns out to be and use Arial and sans-serif and there you go.

It spreads out. Now what we just saw here, smaller/1.5em, in this case it's going to turn out to be the same thing, but remember, or if you haven't seen it, go back and watch the first video about line-heights, for the subtle differences between 1.5 and 1.5em when it comes to line-height. So you can do this if you like, you can throw in your line-height here, or if you really want it to, you could say line-height 1.5 and then font bold, whatever, because, aha, but you can't, it's like the default is going to get filled in there.

So if you're going to have the line-height in there, make sure it comes after the font declaration, cause otherwise, if you leave it out, then the line-height is going to get reset to normal, which is whatever the browser's default is. So there you have it. The ins and outs of the font shorthand and how you have to be a little bit careful with it, because if you leave anything out, you might accidently reset some other value in a way that you wouldn't expecting.

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This video is part of

Image for CSS Web Site Design
CSS Web Site Design

73 video lessons · 61057 viewers

Eric Meyer
Author

 
Expand all | Collapse all
  1. 14m 34s
    1. Welcome
      28s
    2. What is CSS?
      5m 34s
    3. Design tour
      2m 38s
    4. Using the exercise files
      1m 20s
    5. Installing the Web Developer toolbar
      4m 34s
  2. 25m 56s
    1. XHTML essentials
      3m 55s
    2. CSS essentials
      5m 17s
    3. Embedded style sheets
      2m 20s
    4. Linking a style sheet
      2m 19s
    5. Linking to multiple style sheets
      2m 20s
    6. Using linked and embedded style sheets together
      4m 21s
    7. Using imported style sheets
      5m 24s
  3. 57m 48s
    1. ID selector essentials
      6m 38s
    2. Class selector essentials
      4m 9s
    3. Best practices for classes
      4m 52s
    4. Grouped selection
      4m 2s
    5. Descendant selectors
      6m 44s
    6. The sources of style
      6m 38s
    7. Specificity
      8m 21s
    8. Making things important
      4m 32s
    9. Inheritance essentials
      5m 12s
    10. Making things really unstyled
      4m 2s
    11. User style sheets
      2m 38s
  4. 39m 3s
    1. Box model essentials
      7m 35s
    2. Simple floating
      5m 3s
    3. Using float for layout
      5m 5s
    4. Fixing column drop
      5m 35s
    5. Clearing essentials
      4m 20s
    6. Float containment
      6m 35s
    7. Creating a navbar from a list
      4m 50s
  5. 38m 3s
    1. Coloring text
      4m 13s
    2. Defining color in CSS
      8m 12s
    3. Coloring backgrounds
      6m 35s
    4. Applying background images
      4m 19s
    5. Manipulating the direction of background images
      2m 52s
    6. Positioning backgrounds
      7m 23s
    7. Background shorthand
      4m 29s
  6. 58m 28s
    1. Altering line height
      7m 32s
    2. Font style and weight
      5m 45s
    3. Sizing fonts
      9m 59s
    4. Using font families
      10m 38s
    5. Font shorthand
      6m 5s
    6. Justifying text
      4m 56s
    7. Vertically aligning text
      4m 22s
    8. Transforming text
      3m 49s
    9. Text decoration
      5m 22s
  7. 44m 40s
    1. Margin essentials
      14m 21s
    2. Adding borders
      6m 52s
    3. Padding
      9m 17s
    4. Using negative margins
      7m 19s
    5. Margin collapsing
      6m 51s
  8. 20m 38s
    1. Styling tables and captions
      5m 23s
    2. Styling table cells
      6m 30s
    3. Styling a column with classes
      4m 51s
    4. Styling links inside table cells
      3m 54s
  9. 30m 40s
    1. Styling for specific mediums
      4m 3s
    2. Creating a print style sheet
      6m 35s
    3. Hiding layout for print
      4m 11s
    4. Styling for print
      6m 34s
    5. Complex styling for print
      4m 37s
    6. Creating a footer
      4m 40s
  10. 37m 23s
    1. Getting started
      1m 11s
    2. Setting global styles
      4m 4s
    3. Defining masthead and navbar colors
      3m 27s
    4. Layout of the navlink bar
      3m 38s
    5. Using columns
      4m 49s
    6. Setting content styles
      1m 53s
    7. Creating the sidebar boxes
      5m 42s
    8. Creating the sidebar form
      3m 23s
    9. Completing the sidebar
      3m 29s
    10. Making a table
      3m 12s
    11. Creating a footer
      2m 35s
  11. 1m 28s
    1. Goodbye
      1m 28s

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