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CSS: Core Concepts

Embedded styles


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CSS: Core Concepts

with James Williamson

Video: Embedded styles

In the last movie, we introduced inline styles and discussed how they're inefficient for controlling the formatting of pages in sites. Now another way to author styles is through the use of embedded styles. Embedded styles allow you to write styles to control the page content in the head of the page's HTML. Let's give it a try. And the first thing we need to do if we are going to write embedded styles is to use the style tag in the head of the document to let the browser or the user agent know that we have some styles.
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  1. 4m 57s
    1. Welcome
      55s
    2. Using the exercise files
      4m 2s
  2. 1h 7m
    1. Exploring default styling
      4m 56s
    2. CSS authoring tools
      2m 29s
    3. CSS syntax
      4m 45s
    4. Writing a selector
      4m 10s
    5. Setting properties
      8m 40s
    6. Common units of measurement
      7m 47s
    7. Inline styles
      5m 1s
    8. Embedded styles
      5m 19s
    9. Using external style sheets
      10m 34s
    10. Checking for browser support
      8m 48s
    11. Dealing with browser inconsistencies
      5m 30s
  3. 2h 15m
    1. Structuring HTML correctly
      2m 51s
    2. Element selectors
      4m 52s
    3. Class selectors
      6m 4s
    4. ID selectors
      3m 27s
    5. Using classes and IDs
      10m 7s
    6. Element-specific selectors
      4m 35s
    7. The universal selector
      5m 42s
    8. Grouping selectors
      4m 49s
    9. Descendent selectors
      7m 32s
    10. Child selectors
      5m 7s
    11. Adjacent selectors
      5m 30s
    12. Attribute selectors
      12m 43s
    13. Pseudo-class selectors
      3m 54s
    14. Dynamic pseudo-class selectors
      8m 29s
    15. Structural pseudo-class selectors
      6m 45s
    16. Nth-child selectors
      13m 10s
    17. Pseudo-element selectors
      12m 40s
    18. Targeting page content: Lab
      8m 56s
    19. Targeting page content: Solution
      7m 59s
  4. 42m 39s
    1. What happens when styles conflict?
      4m 0s
    2. Understanding the cascade
      5m 47s
    3. Using inheritance
      6m 11s
    4. Selector specificity
      6m 55s
    5. The !important declaration
      4m 5s
    6. Reducing conflicts through planning
      3m 33s
    7. Resolving conflicts: Lab
      6m 45s
    8. Resolving conflicts: Solution
      5m 23s
  5. 1h 47m
    1. Setting a font family
      7m 10s
    2. Using @font-face
      9m 18s
    3. Setting font size
      7m 35s
    4. Font style and font weight
      6m 52s
    5. Transforming text
      3m 58s
    6. Using text variants
      2m 49s
    7. Text decoration options
      4m 26s
    8. Setting text color
      3m 2s
    9. Writing font shorthand notation
      8m 49s
    10. Controlling text alignment
      6m 33s
    11. Letter and word spacing
      9m 11s
    12. Indenting text
      4m 30s
    13. Adjusting paragraph line height
      10m 30s
    14. Controlling the space between elements
      6m 41s
    15. Basic text formatting: Lab
      8m 45s
    16. Basic text formatting: Solution
      7m 14s
  6. 2h 1m
    1. Understanding the box model
      16m 53s
    2. Controlling element spacing
      14m 29s
    3. Controlling interior spacing
      10m 49s
    4. Margin and padding shorthand notation
      6m 27s
    5. Adding borders
      8m 57s
    6. Defining element size
      10m 7s
    7. Creating rounded corners
      6m 58s
    8. Background properties
      2m 51s
    9. Using background images
      5m 10s
    10. Controlling image positioning
      10m 25s
    11. Using multiple backgrounds
      7m 5s
    12. Background shorthand notation
      5m 25s
    13. Styling container elements: Lab
      7m 55s
    14. Styling container elements: Solution
      8m 17s
  7. 47m 51s
    1. Color keyword definitions
      5m 4s
    2. Understanding hexadecimal notation
      6m 5s
    3. Using RGB values
      4m 58s
    4. Using HSL values
      5m 17s
    5. Working with opacity
      2m 23s
    6. Using RGBa and HSLa
      3m 8s
    7. Styling drop shadows
      5m 38s
    8. CSS gradients
      6m 32s
    9. Working with color: Lab
      4m 26s
    10. Working with color: Solution
      4m 20s
  8. 1m 58s
    1. Additional resources
      1m 58s

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CSS: Core Concepts
8h 49m Beginner Nov 22, 2011

Viewers: in countries Watching now:

In this hands-on course, James Williamson demonstrates the concepts that form the foundation of Cascading Style Sheets (CSS), including styling text, adding margins and padding, and controlling how images display. The course also explores the tools needed to work with CSS, the differences between embedded and external styles, how to use selectors to target elements, and what to do when styles conflict.

Topics include:
  • Exploring default styling
  • Writing a selector
  • Setting properties
  • Working with common units of measurement, including ems and pixels
  • Structuring HTML correctly
  • Understanding the cascade and inheritance
  • Setting a font family, font size, text color, and more
  • Understanding the box model
  • Styling container elements
  • Working with RGB vs. HSL values
  • Styling drop shadows
Subject:
Web
Software:
CSS
Author:
James Williamson

Embedded styles

In the last movie, we introduced inline styles and discussed how they're inefficient for controlling the formatting of pages in sites. Now another way to author styles is through the use of embedded styles. Embedded styles allow you to write styles to control the page content in the head of the page's HTML. Let's give it a try. And the first thing we need to do if we are going to write embedded styles is to use the style tag in the head of the document to let the browser or the user agent know that we have some styles.

So the first thing I am going to do is go right up here, so right after the title, but before the closing head tag. I am going to go ahead and open up a style tag and then Aptana closes the style tag for me, which is very nice of it, but if your user agent didn't do that for you, go ahead and do that. I also like creating just a little bit of room between them so that I have room to create my styles. Now in some older browsers, or in older units, you might actually see within the style using an attribute like type, for example, to specify that it's CSS styles or something like that. But with HTML5, the text CSS is assumed as the type for style tags, so I don't really have to use that anymore.

So the first thing I am going to do is write a selector that is going to control the entire page in terms of the font family being used. And we will just go ahead and use the element selector body to do that. So I am going to go ahead and do body and open up curly brace, and I will hit Return. Now I usually like to do what you're seeing right here. Now again, Aptana Studio is being very nice, because as soon as I opened up a curly brace, it went ahead and closed one for me, but I really do like to build it this way, even if I have do it manually. I call this the skeleton of a selector, and it's very easy to forget that closing curly brace.

So when you do that, your styles really get a little out of whack. So you want to make sure that you have the opening and closing braces. And I like to do that at the very beginning of writing a rule. Okay, now I am just going to do font- family, and I am just going to do Arial. So again remember, our properties have a colon after them and a semicolon at the end of that line. Okay, I am going to go down to my next rule, and to do that, again I am just going to make sure that I am at the closing curly brace of body--not still inside of it; I have to be outside of it--and then hit Return. Now I can go down to the next line and just go ahead and do a new selector.

So here I am going to do all paragraphs, so I am just going to do a P selector. And again I am just going to hit Return to go down to the next line. Now again I have my opening and closing curly braces, so if you are not using an editor like Aptana that we will go ahead and do that for you, make sure you do that. And I am just going to type in font-size: 16 pixels and then on the next line color: red. So these values are probably familiar to you if you did the previous exercise, because they are almost exactly the same. And next, I'm going to do one more selector, so I am going to go down below in my paragraph.

I am going to do div p. So that's going to target every paragraph inside of div. This is called a descendent selector. The whitespace there is very important between the div and the p, and we are going to talk more about those in our chapter on selectors. Now inside that selector I am just going to do font-style: italic and then font-size: 14 pixels. If I save this and preview this in one of my browsers, I can see that I am getting the exact same formatting that we had in the previous exercise, for the most part.

Everything is Arial, I have got the size in there I want, I have got the color that I am looking for, and the paragraphs inside the div tag are indeed italic this time around as well. So that's is a lot more efficient than inline styles, especially in regards to controlling the content of this page. But it's still not as efficient as it could be in terms of controlling an entire site. It's great for this page, but what if I want every page in my site to be styled the exact same way? So over here in the 01_08 folder, there's another file. This one is called embedded2. I am going to go ahead and open that up. And what if I wanted to use the exact same styling on this page? Well, the easiest way for me to do this is to simply copy everything, including the opening and closing style tags, and then pasting that into my new embedded2 file.

And if I save that and preview that in the browser, I can see that it looks exactly the same as my first one. So yes, that does work, but imagine having to do this for, say, a site that has 100 pages, and then what if you needed to make a change? Let's say I want to change the color of the text from red to green, so I would come back in my code here, type in green for the color, but I have to remember to do it for every single page. So that's not that big of a deal when you only have two pages, but it's a big deal when you have, say, 50 pages or 100 pages or 1,000 pages.

So while embedded styles, they do give us a really powerful and efficient way to target the content of an individual page, they are inefficient as a means of controlling styles across an entire site. Now for the most part, authors use embedded styles as a way of writing smaller, targeted styles that are only meant for a specific page. So if you have one page in your site, or maybe two pages in your site, that the styling on is very, very unique, or you need to overwrite something in your global styles, this is a good way to do it. But for site-wide styling, most authors use external style sheets, which is what we are going to explore in our very next movie.

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