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CSS3 First Look

Deploying styles through media queries


From:

CSS3 First Look

with James Williamson

Video: Deploying styles through media queries

Now that we have our tablet and mobile specific style sheets, we need to use media queries to target those devices. We'll start in this movie by discussing targeting based on screen size and follow that up by dealing with some considerations for targeting iOS devices such as the iPad and the iPhone. So I have the tours.htm opened up and right at the top of the page here in the code we have our links to our style sheets. Now currently the tablet and the mobile style sheet are applying to all screen and projection devices.
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  1. 3m 5s
    1. Welcome
      1m 20s
    2. Using the exercise files
      1m 45s
  2. 31m 30s
    1. What is CSS3?
      5m 26s
    2. The current status of CSS3
      3m 35s
    3. An overview of CSS3 capabilities
      2m 24s
    4. Can you use CSS3 now?
      5m 31s
    5. Detecting support for CSS3
      9m 0s
    6. Understanding vendor prefixes
      5m 34s
  3. 1h 9m
    1. An overview of child and sibling selectors
      3m 11s
    2. Using child and sibling selectors
      7m 17s
    3. An overview of attribute selectors
      3m 19s
    4. Using attribute selectors
      8m 32s
    5. Pseudo-class UI selectors
      5m 56s
    6. Negation pseudo-class selectors
      6m 48s
    7. Target pseudo-class selectors
      5m 39s
    8. Structural selectors
      3m 58s
    9. Nth-child selector syntax
      10m 0s
    10. First, last, and only structural selectors
      5m 39s
    11. Using structural selectors to write more efficient code
      8m 52s
  4. 45m 28s
    1. Color formats in CSS3
      7m 9s
    2. Transparency in CSS3
      9m 10s
    3. CSS3 gradients
      4m 11s
    4. Creating linear gradients
      13m 57s
    5. Creating radial gradients
      11m 1s
  5. 49m 8s
    1. Working with web fonts
      6m 38s
    2. @font-face syntax
      4m 52s
    3. Downloading sample fonts
      6m 5s
    4. Writing @font-face declarations
      7m 57s
    5. Using web fonts
      6m 42s
    6. Using text shadows
      7m 14s
    7. Creating multi-column text
      9m 40s
  6. 50m 55s
    1. An overview of the flexible box model
      4m 42s
    2. Controlling box orientation
      5m 2s
    3. Setting element flexibility
      12m 59s
    4. Distributing boxes
      7m 54s
    5. Controlling box alignment
      12m 38s
    6. Working with box-sizing
      7m 40s
  7. 1h 5m
    1. Using border-radius
      6m 20s
    2. Creating custom rounded corners
      10m 21s
    3. Understanding border images
      5m 15s
    4. Using border images
      8m 52s
    5. Creating box shadows
      8m 58s
    6. CSS3 backgrounds
      4m 55s
    7. Controlling background size
      8m 46s
    8. Creating multiple background images
      6m 4s
    9. Using background-origin
      3m 18s
    10. Clipping background content
      3m 2s
  8. 40m 8s
    1. An overview of CSS3 2D transforms
      4m 26s
    2. Using 2D transforms
      8m 16s
    3. Setting transform origins
      5m 24s
    4. An overview of CSS3 transitions
      5m 0s
    5. Animating CSS properties
      6m 12s
    6. Using easing in animations
      5m 41s
    7. An overview of 3D transforms
      5m 9s
  9. 37m 56s
    1. Understanding media queries
      6m 18s
    2. Strategies for targeting multiple devices
      6m 4s
    3. Writing styles for target screen sizes
      12m 11s
    4. Deploying styles through media queries
      3m 55s
    5. Basing media queries on page orientation
      2m 24s
    6. Targeting media queries for iOS devices
      7m 4s
  10. 1m 6s
    1. Goodbye
      1m 6s

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CSS3 First Look
6h 34m Appropriate for all Nov 29, 2010

Viewers: in countries Watching now:

In CSS3 First Look, staff author James Williamson provides an in-depth introduction to the newest CSS standard, detailing its modular format, history, and current level of browser support, while also demonstrating its capabilities and applications. The course includes tutorials on using new selectors, modifying typography and color, working with the box model, and understanding media queries. Exercise files accompany the course.

Topics include:
  • Understanding the history of CSS3
  • Working with the new selectors
  • Adding transparency and gradients
  • Specifying web fonts with @font-face
  • Understanding the advances to page layout
  • Looking at CSS3 box model capabilities
  • Using 2D and 3D transforms
  • Understanding media queries
Subject:
Web
Software:
CSS
Author:
James Williamson

Deploying styles through media queries

Now that we have our tablet and mobile specific style sheets, we need to use media queries to target those devices. We'll start in this movie by discussing targeting based on screen size and follow that up by dealing with some considerations for targeting iOS devices such as the iPad and the iPhone. So I have the tours.htm opened up and right at the top of the page here in the code we have our links to our style sheets. Now currently the tablet and the mobile style sheet are applying to all screen and projection devices.

We want to change that. So the first thing I am going to do is work with my tablet style sheet and I am just going to go ahead and replace the contents here, projection and comma, so I am just going to leave screen. Actually, if I wanted to, I could also do "all," but remember that would have applied like print devices as well. So I am just going to leave it as screen. So I'm going to screen and, and then open up our parenthesis. Essentially, here I'm going to do minimum width of 481 pixels. Now that's not a random value that I chose.

Most mobile devices, including the iPhone, they have a minimum screen size of 480 pixels. More on that a little bit later on when we talk about iOS specific devices. So, for a tablet, I don't want those styles to be served below that. I want the mobile style served below that. So that's what we are doing with the minimum width. Then I am going to use another and keyword to join another media function. In here, we're going to a max width, max-width. Now the max-width here is going to 768 pixels.

Coincidentally enough, that's the width of the iPad in the portrait orientation. Okay, now we are ready to go into our mobile media queries. I'm just going to save myself a little bit of typing by copying this media query and then pasting it in place of screen and projection and again here my values need to change. I'm going to do a minimum width of 0. Really, it'll allow me to on any device from 0 on up to 480 pixels. So notice how these meet. 481 to 768, I get my tablet styles. Anywhere between zero to 480, I get my mobile styles.

So I am going to go ahead and save that. Now I want to have a discussion here about minimum width for just a moment. Minimum width is more reliable than device width. I know I've read articles where people are using device-width to target mobile devices and tablets and things like that. Now the device itself may have a specific screen size, but here's the thing that you have to understand. Mobile displays are sometimes served at a very different resolution and screen size, based on what the manufacturer's idea of what an ideal viewing size is.

So while your media query may work in targeting that device, the problem is that it is going to be served at whatever resolution or pixel aspect ratio that the manufacturer has determined. So a lot of your mobile site will appear, but it'll be very tiny or not the size you needed. So essentially, by using minimum and maximum width you're targeting the viewport itself. So the actual viewport size, not the device size, and it's a lot smarter choice than using device-width to do that.

It helps to avoid a lot of problems. Okay, so now we have our tablet and mobile screen sizes being served based on the width of the available viewport and as we've seen, resizing the screen size will serve the desired layout. Let's go ahead and just test that. So if I preview this in Chrome, again that shrinks down. Shrink it a little further, we get our mobile. Cool! It's working. Now, there are still a couple of tweaks that we need to make to target specific devices, such as the iPhone and the iPad.

Now before we get into those however, I want to take a brief detour into working with page orientation and we are going to do that in our next movie.

Find answers to the most frequently asked questions about CSS3 First Look.


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Q: I'm following along with the video "Transparency in CSS3".  James shows us how to achieve transparency in Internet Explorer by going to Kimili.com and entering a HSLA value to generate code for transparency.

Here that code:

background: transparent;-ms-filter: "progid:DXImageTransform.Microsoft.gradient(startColorstr=#BF0E0C0B,endColorstr=#BF0E0C0B)"; /* IE8 */
filter: progid:DXImageTransform.Microsoft.gradient(startColorstr=#BF0E0C0B,endColorstr=#BF0E0C0B); /* IE6 & 7 */ zoom: 1;

When this code is added to my HTML file it removes transparency on browsers that do in fact support it. So I'm left with NO transparency. Why?
A: The problem is in the filter code. If the IE background is called last, the first "transparent" declaration will remove all previous colors, regardless of browser. To resolve this, place the rule inside a conditional comment for IE or remove the "transparent" declaration at the front of the rule.
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