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CSS gives Web designers control over the appearance of their web sites by separating the visual presentation from the content. It lets them easily make minor changes to a site or perform a complete overhaul of the design. In CSS Web Site Design, instructor and leading industry expert Eric Meyer reviews the essentials of CSS, including selectors, the cascade, and inheritance. The training also covers how to build effective navigation, how to lay out pages, and how to work with typography, colors, backgrounds, and white space. Using a project-based approach, Eric walks through the process of creating a Web page, while teaching the essentials of CSS along the way. By the end of the training, viewers will have the tools to master professional site design. Exercise files accompany the training videos.
For this video, we're going to get things set up so that we can start doing print styling and add some basic print styles before moving on in later videos to more complicated effects. So you see here is the same old design with its lovely screen styles. Now, what we have here if you look at the code, is a link to our screen style sheet and a link to our print style sheet, in this case ex0902. There are two ways really to go about designing, creating a print style sheet. One is to work on your print style sheet for little while, more or less blind, until you think you know what you've got, print it out, see if you're right, and if you're wrong, adjust, print it out again and then basically just keep printing it out as you're printing out your pages. You go until you have the print style sheet that you want. If you have that kind of paper budget to burn and then more power to you, I on the other hand prefer to do this. Instead of having a screen styles applied, I pick a media type that will never possibly apply.
Basically to get them out of the way. So, tty, that's a perfectly valid media type and yet pretty much nobody uses tty displays anymore. A web browser is not a tty device and neither is a printer. For that matter, by changing the media type of the basic style sheet to tty, it's not going to apply it to this, this page, either on screen or in print and now, now what we can do is we can change the media type of the print style sheet to screen. So that way, we'll be getting our own sort of print preview in the web browser and so we can do the good old save and reload in order to make things happen. So if we hit Reload here, then the styles are gone and if I were to do a print preview, there also wouldn't be any styles there, because we haven't created our print styles yet.
We have a reference here to an external style sheet. Up to this point pretty much except for way back in chapter 2, I've been doing all of the style additions in embedded style sheets, and that's one way to do it that's really more useful though as a teaching need, than anything else, for this chapter. Since it's almost invariably the case, the print style sheets are external style sheets and they are linked in, then that's what we're going to do here. We're going to have a link to an external style sheet in each of the videos and we'll go and edit those, so if you open up the styles folder, than what you find is a number of style sheets. We'll open up ex0902 and here it is, completely blank.
This perhaps will not come as much of a surprise. So in this ex0902, we're just going to set some very basic styles such as for the body of, and with this, what we're going to do is pick a font-family that's appropriate for print. Now, there's a lot of debate as to whether or not, serif or sans-serif font is easier to read and whether one type is easier to read on screen and another type is easier to read in print and there's a lot of argument back and forth.
And I don't propose to assert that I know the answer to this. Very smart people have made claims on both sides of the fence some have said, that serifs are always easier to read, some said sans-serif are always easier to read, so on and so forth. And anyway, what we're going to do here, is we're going to say for the body, for in print, we're going to use Times New Roman, if that's not available TimesNR are and if that's not available, Times, if none of those are available, then let's at least use a serif font. So that will if we switch back to our web browser has a slide effect, because the web browser previously wasn't actually defaulting to Times new Roman, it was a defaulting to probably Times or something similar.
Now, we might also choose to set a specific font size and this is where things can get a little interesting, because for the longest time, we've been told not to use points in Web design, and in fact, using points for screen design is a horrible, horrible, horrible idea for a variety of reasons that would really take too long to explain in this video but what it comes down to is accurate presentation of point measures is dependent on your display, knowing how many pixels there are in an inch and your display almost invariably does not know how many pixels there are per inch for a display, cause computer aren't that smart.
On the other hand, printers know how many dots they have for an inch, so they know how many dots they need to make 12 point text. So you might think about using points in print style. There are those who oppose this on the grounds that in some web browsers the user is completely unable to restyle the font size before they go and print, and that's a debate I think best left for another day. I'm going to leave in the 12 points, because I have not personally seen that many downsides that something that I encourage every author to weigh the pros and cons and make their own decision regarding what they're going to do with point and of course if you deploy a style sheet like this and then you get e-mail from people showing you that that's a problem for your website, you can always just edit your CSS to take out the sizing, but anyway, we're going to that here.
While we're at it, we're going to reproduce a style from the screen style sheet, which is to remove any borders from around images that are inside hyperlinks, you can see that happening here, actually the Javacotea has a thick blue border around it, which is pretty much a holdover from the Mosaic Web browser days. So we turn that off, just by saying IMG border zero and the last thing that we're going to do is just very basically in this particular exercise is, you see here that we have the image still. This is a foreground image, so it will print, unlike a background image for example, but we don't want it to print like that, we would really like to have it do what it does in the screen style sheet. So this is just a recreation of what's in the screen style sheet. These are the same styles that are used for screen presentations. So there, at this point we've done some real basics, set up the font for the overall document, you know, the font family anyway, and a base, sort of a base on font size, removed borders from images there inside of links and floated the illustration image over to the left, just like it is in the screen style sheet. So that's a baby step, but still it's a good foundation for the next part, when we start to switch off the pieces of the pages that don't really need to be printed.
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