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CSS gives Web designers control over the appearance of their web sites by separating the visual presentation from the content. It lets them easily make minor changes to a site or perform a complete overhaul of the design. In CSS Web Site Design, instructor and leading industry expert Eric Meyer reviews the essentials of CSS, including selectors, the cascade, and inheritance. The training also covers how to build effective navigation, how to lay out pages, and how to work with typography, colors, backgrounds, and white space. Using a project-based approach, Eric walks through the process of creating a Web page, while teaching the essentials of CSS along the way. By the end of the training, viewers will have the tools to master professional site design. Exercise files accompany the training videos.
So in this movie we're actually going to take a look at how we can change the kind of display role elements can have. That may sound a little abstract. Let's make it concrete. The nav bar you can see here, actually is gone back to being an ordered list of 123456, there are six navigation links, and we don't want it to look like that, do we? We want to be a horizontal navigation bar, and we can do that. You can see here near the bottom of this code the ordered list with the ID of navlinks, that were the navigation links with all the list items, and that's all cool.
So these list items by default, generate what are known as block boxes. A block box is the same kind of box that would be generated by a div, or a paragraph, or heading, those sort of thing, when they go completely side to side and they don't let any other elements sit next to them. Hyperlinks and Spans and other such things generate what are known as inline boxes, where you can have a bunch of them on the same line of text and there's no problem there, they are actually wrapped from line to line if necessary. So, what we want to do here really is take the list items, which are generating block boxes and make them act more like they are spans and rather than changing the actual markup all we really need to do is say for the list items that are inside that navlinks, oh well, we're just going to have them be display inline.
And if we go back over and hit Reload, there you go. Now, the other aspects, the little vertical separators, those are done with borders as will be discussed in Chapter 7, but the basic point here is that these have got been from generating block boxes to generating inline boxes. So, what we want to do here is just take a little bit of a precaution. Remember this is still an ordered list, and there're still list items and in a couple browsers, what you will find sometimes is that even if you make your list items inline, they are still going to generate their markers- that would be the 123456. So, just to make sure we're going to say list-style none and that will switch off the markers there. This is not going to have any visible effect here in Firefox because Firefox rather appropriately, at least in my opinion, says, hey, these aren't the list items aren't generating the list item boxes anymore which are block type boxes, so I'm going to because they're generating in-line boxes, I'm not going to put the marker on, but anyway, you know, not every browser apparently agrees with that. So you say list-style none, just to cover your bases and make sure that those markers don't show up in other browsers.
So, that's display. There's really one other display value, no, there are two other display values that are of large interest, but there's one other that I'd like to point out. You may recall, or you may not, that there is a b elements inside the h1, which is used to set the color of the about tea text and the b element is inline. By default the b element generates an inline box. So, what we're going to do here, I'm going to set the background of it for a moment to be black.
Now, I'm going to go over and hit Reload. There's that black inline box, well, there's that black background on that inline box and now, what I'm going to say is display block. And if we now hit Reload, there you go, the b element is now generating a black box. For those of you who have some experience with XHTML and HTML, this doesn't mean that the b element has gone from being an inline element, to a block element. The only change is in the kind of box that's being generated. There is one other value of display that gets used fairly often and that's none. Display none means just don't display a box for this element, and if we hit Reload, the b element is going to go away right now. All gone.
It generates no box, it has no influence on the layout of the document. This is used primarily to do things like hide things that need to be sort of popped up as it were, sometimes drop down menus are hidden in their unhovered state, they are hidden by using display none. Sometimes it's by using visibility hidden. That always depends. The other reason that display none gets used is for things like printing, suppressing the display of things in print, which will be discussed in Chapter 9. But that's a display, basically displays what you fiddle, with the kind of box that an element generates.
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