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CSS Web Site Design
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Clearing essentials


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CSS Web Site Design

with Eric Meyer

Video: Clearing essentials

In this movie we're going to find out how to avoid problems like you see right here on the screen. I floated to the columns to the left actually in this case and given them explicit widths, which is a bit of a rehearsal from before, but it helps to illustrate what's going on. We've got this green stripe problem. That's the footer actually. The footers all away at the top of the document, up their equal with the two floated elements, the two floated images, with the two floated columns and you can see that content right there to the right, that's not good. You might think ok, well maybe I'll float this sidebar to the right and that will push it down, but actually not so much, that'll just let the content of the footer flow between the two floated divs, and it doesn't really move down at all. What we need is, we need a way to push the footer down so it's below these floats and fortunately there's a way to do that. It's called clear. Clear to the rescue.
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  1. 14m 34s
    1. Welcome
      28s
    2. What is CSS?
      5m 34s
    3. Design tour
      2m 38s
    4. Using the exercise files
      1m 20s
    5. Installing the Web Developer toolbar
      4m 34s
  2. 25m 56s
    1. XHTML essentials
      3m 55s
    2. CSS essentials
      5m 17s
    3. Embedded style sheets
      2m 20s
    4. Linking a style sheet
      2m 19s
    5. Linking to multiple style sheets
      2m 20s
    6. Using linked and embedded style sheets together
      4m 21s
    7. Using imported style sheets
      5m 24s
  3. 57m 48s
    1. ID selector essentials
      6m 38s
    2. Class selector essentials
      4m 9s
    3. Best practices for classes
      4m 52s
    4. Grouped selection
      4m 2s
    5. Descendant selectors
      6m 44s
    6. The sources of style
      6m 38s
    7. Specificity
      8m 21s
    8. Making things important
      4m 32s
    9. Inheritance essentials
      5m 12s
    10. Making things really unstyled
      4m 2s
    11. User style sheets
      2m 38s
  4. 39m 3s
    1. Box model essentials
      7m 35s
    2. Simple floating
      5m 3s
    3. Using float for layout
      5m 5s
    4. Fixing column drop
      5m 35s
    5. Clearing essentials
      4m 20s
    6. Float containment
      6m 35s
    7. Creating a navbar from a list
      4m 50s
  5. 38m 3s
    1. Coloring text
      4m 13s
    2. Defining color in CSS
      8m 12s
    3. Coloring backgrounds
      6m 35s
    4. Applying background images
      4m 19s
    5. Manipulating the direction of background images
      2m 52s
    6. Positioning backgrounds
      7m 23s
    7. Background shorthand
      4m 29s
  6. 58m 28s
    1. Altering line height
      7m 32s
    2. Font style and weight
      5m 45s
    3. Sizing fonts
      9m 59s
    4. Using font families
      10m 38s
    5. Font shorthand
      6m 5s
    6. Justifying text
      4m 56s
    7. Vertically aligning text
      4m 22s
    8. Transforming text
      3m 49s
    9. Text decoration
      5m 22s
  7. 44m 40s
    1. Margin essentials
      14m 21s
    2. Adding borders
      6m 52s
    3. Padding
      9m 17s
    4. Using negative margins
      7m 19s
    5. Margin collapsing
      6m 51s
  8. 20m 38s
    1. Styling tables and captions
      5m 23s
    2. Styling table cells
      6m 30s
    3. Styling a column with classes
      4m 51s
    4. Styling links inside table cells
      3m 54s
  9. 30m 40s
    1. Styling for specific mediums
      4m 3s
    2. Creating a print style sheet
      6m 35s
    3. Hiding layout for print
      4m 11s
    4. Styling for print
      6m 34s
    5. Complex styling for print
      4m 37s
    6. Creating a footer
      4m 40s
  10. 37m 23s
    1. Getting started
      1m 11s
    2. Setting global styles
      4m 4s
    3. Defining masthead and navbar colors
      3m 27s
    4. Layout of the navlink bar
      3m 38s
    5. Using columns
      4m 49s
    6. Setting content styles
      1m 53s
    7. Creating the sidebar boxes
      5m 42s
    8. Creating the sidebar form
      3m 23s
    9. Completing the sidebar
      3m 29s
    10. Making a table
      3m 12s
    11. Creating a footer
      2m 35s
  11. 1m 28s
    1. Goodbye
      1m 28s

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CSS Web Site Design
6h 8m Intermediate Sep 12, 2006

Viewers: in countries Watching now:

CSS gives Web designers control over the appearance of their web sites by separating the visual presentation from the content. It lets them easily make minor changes to a site or perform a complete overhaul of the design. In CSS Web Site Design, instructor and leading industry expert Eric Meyer reviews the essentials of CSS, including selectors, the cascade, and inheritance. The training also covers how to build effective navigation, how to lay out pages, and how to work with typography, colors, backgrounds, and white space. Using a project-based approach, Eric walks through the process of creating a Web page, while teaching the essentials of CSS along the way. By the end of the training, viewers will have the tools to master professional site design. Exercise files accompany the training videos.

Subjects:
Web Web Design
Software:
CSS
Author:
Eric Meyer

Clearing essentials

In this movie we're going to find out how to avoid problems like you see right here on the screen. I floated to the columns to the left actually in this case and given them explicit widths, which is a bit of a rehearsal from before, but it helps to illustrate what's going on. We've got this green stripe problem. That's the footer actually. The footers all away at the top of the document, up their equal with the two floated elements, the two floated images, with the two floated columns and you can see that content right there to the right, that's not good. You might think ok, well maybe I'll float this sidebar to the right and that will push it down, but actually not so much, that'll just let the content of the footer flow between the two floated divs, and it doesn't really move down at all. What we need is, we need a way to push the footer down so it's below these floats and fortunately there's a way to do that. It's called clear. Clear to the rescue.

So what I'm going to do is add a little style here, footer and I'm going to say clear left. Ok, so what I'm basically saying is I want this element, in this case the element with an ID of footer to have itself pushed down so that it's beyond any left floating elements that come before it in the document. Ok, so push it clear on down, clear it down. If we hit reload the footer gets away, it actually hasn't gone away, it's dropped down to the bottom, but notice, it's cleared to the left.

It's clearing down below any left floated element that comes before it. So, it's not clearing below any right floated elements like the sidebar div. So it's just going to keep going right on under the sidebar div. If we want to clear it below both, well, if we want to clear it below the right floated div, we can say clear right and that's going to push it down blow any right floated div, but of course, what happens if that left column becomes taller. We're going to have an overlap problem again. If the left-hand column did become taller on, let's say a different page, then you'd still have the footer cleared below the right floated sidebar, but then the content would get showed around and there'd be overlapping and it will be bad, so better still, clear both, which is clear this footer below any floated element that comes before it, which has no apparent effect here, but should the left column ever become taller, then the footer would keep getting pushed down below the left floated column, or the right floated column, whichever one is taller.

This is why floats get used for layout in the first place, it's because of clear, because you can take the footer and just stick it on down there and that's pretty much clearing there for you. Now, the way that clear actually works technically is that the top margin of the cleared element is automatically overwritten and set to a sufficient size that it puts the visible portion of the cleared element below any previous floats. So if we were to try to set a top margin for the footer, we might say, you know, what we want is we want to, actually let's make that bigger, we want the footer to be 20 pixels below anything that floated beforehand.

You can see I just said margin 20 pixels and that put 20 pixels of side margin to any pixels of bottom margin, but there's no top margin, because the way clear works, it's overriding that top margin. So, if you want to actually have the footer pushed away from floats that come before it, what you need do is you need to put the margin you want on the bottom of your floated elements and it's better to do both of them because you don't necessarily know which one will be taller. So, this way, which ever one of these two is the tallest on a given page, there will be an extra 20 pixels of bottom margin, on the bottom of the floats and that will push the visible portion of the footer down by 20 pixels. So again, if you want some sort of separation, 20 pixels, 2ems, whatever, between your floated columns in your footer you need to create that separation through bottom margins on the floated columns not on the top of the footer.

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