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CSS3 First Look

CSS3 backgrounds


From:

CSS3 First Look

with James Williamson

Video: CSS3 backgrounds

Many of the existing features in CSS 2.1 have been improved or extended. That's the case with CSS backgrounds which get a host of new capabilities in the CSS Backgrounds and Borders Level 3 module. In this movie, we are going to take a look at some of those new capabilities before getting to work with them in an exercise. First, I want to take a look at background sizing. Using the background-size property, you can now control the size of the background image as it's painted into its container element.
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  1. 3m 5s
    1. Welcome
      1m 20s
    2. Using the exercise files
      1m 45s
  2. 31m 30s
    1. What is CSS3?
      5m 26s
    2. The current status of CSS3
      3m 35s
    3. An overview of CSS3 capabilities
      2m 24s
    4. Can you use CSS3 now?
      5m 31s
    5. Detecting support for CSS3
      9m 0s
    6. Understanding vendor prefixes
      5m 34s
  3. 1h 9m
    1. An overview of child and sibling selectors
      3m 11s
    2. Using child and sibling selectors
      7m 17s
    3. An overview of attribute selectors
      3m 19s
    4. Using attribute selectors
      8m 32s
    5. Pseudo-class UI selectors
      5m 56s
    6. Negation pseudo-class selectors
      6m 48s
    7. Target pseudo-class selectors
      5m 39s
    8. Structural selectors
      3m 58s
    9. Nth-child selector syntax
      10m 0s
    10. First, last, and only structural selectors
      5m 39s
    11. Using structural selectors to write more efficient code
      8m 52s
  4. 45m 28s
    1. Color formats in CSS3
      7m 9s
    2. Transparency in CSS3
      9m 10s
    3. CSS3 gradients
      4m 11s
    4. Creating linear gradients
      13m 57s
    5. Creating radial gradients
      11m 1s
  5. 49m 8s
    1. Working with web fonts
      6m 38s
    2. @font-face syntax
      4m 52s
    3. Downloading sample fonts
      6m 5s
    4. Writing @font-face declarations
      7m 57s
    5. Using web fonts
      6m 42s
    6. Using text shadows
      7m 14s
    7. Creating multi-column text
      9m 40s
  6. 50m 55s
    1. An overview of the flexible box model
      4m 42s
    2. Controlling box orientation
      5m 2s
    3. Setting element flexibility
      12m 59s
    4. Distributing boxes
      7m 54s
    5. Controlling box alignment
      12m 38s
    6. Working with box-sizing
      7m 40s
  7. 1h 5m
    1. Using border-radius
      6m 20s
    2. Creating custom rounded corners
      10m 21s
    3. Understanding border images
      5m 15s
    4. Using border images
      8m 52s
    5. Creating box shadows
      8m 58s
    6. CSS3 backgrounds
      4m 55s
    7. Controlling background size
      8m 46s
    8. Creating multiple background images
      6m 4s
    9. Using background-origin
      3m 18s
    10. Clipping background content
      3m 2s
  8. 40m 8s
    1. An overview of CSS3 2D transforms
      4m 26s
    2. Using 2D transforms
      8m 16s
    3. Setting transform origins
      5m 24s
    4. An overview of CSS3 transitions
      5m 0s
    5. Animating CSS properties
      6m 12s
    6. Using easing in animations
      5m 41s
    7. An overview of 3D transforms
      5m 9s
  9. 37m 56s
    1. Understanding media queries
      6m 18s
    2. Strategies for targeting multiple devices
      6m 4s
    3. Writing styles for target screen sizes
      12m 11s
    4. Deploying styles through media queries
      3m 55s
    5. Basing media queries on page orientation
      2m 24s
    6. Targeting media queries for iOS devices
      7m 4s
  10. 1m 6s
    1. Goodbye
      1m 6s

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CSS3 First Look
6h 34m Appropriate for all Nov 29, 2010

Viewers: in countries Watching now:

In CSS3 First Look, staff author James Williamson provides an in-depth introduction to the newest CSS standard, detailing its modular format, history, and current level of browser support, while also demonstrating its capabilities and applications. The course includes tutorials on using new selectors, modifying typography and color, working with the box model, and understanding media queries. Exercise files accompany the course.

Topics include:
  • Understanding the history of CSS3
  • Working with the new selectors
  • Adding transparency and gradients
  • Specifying web fonts with @font-face
  • Understanding the advances to page layout
  • Looking at CSS3 box model capabilities
  • Using 2D and 3D transforms
  • Understanding media queries
Subject:
Web
Software:
CSS
Author:
James Williamson

CSS3 backgrounds

Many of the existing features in CSS 2.1 have been improved or extended. That's the case with CSS backgrounds which get a host of new capabilities in the CSS Backgrounds and Borders Level 3 module. In this movie, we are going to take a look at some of those new capabilities before getting to work with them in an exercise. First, I want to take a look at background sizing. Using the background-size property, you can now control the size of the background image as it's painted into its container element.

You can specify sizes in lengths, percentages, or the use of two keywords. If you're using values for size, you can specify a width and a height by passing two values or a single value for both measurements. The keywords, contain and cover, allow you to scale the image while preserving its aspect ratio so that it fits the containing element. Contain makes sure the entire image fits within the containing element, even if the width or height doesn't exactly match one of the sides.

While cover ensures that the element fills both the height and the width, even if clipping occurs on one side or the other. The background-repeat property has a couple of new values as well. Space and round allow you in theory to change how repeating background images are spaced. Space will repeat the image as many times as it can within the container without the images being clipped. Then remaining space will be distributed between the background images.

Round will perform the same function but instead of distributing space, round will scale the background images so that they fit within the container with no clipping. Unfortunately only Opera 10.5 supports this currently. So this is one of those features of CSS3 that we are going to have to wait for. Now probably the most anticipated addition to backgrounds is the ability to have multiple backgrounds. This allows you to stack multiple background images within a containing element.

The design implications resulting from this are huge and this technique is going to go a long way into reducing the amount of extra markup needed to achieve a certain designs. To layer multiple backgrounds, you simply provide comma-separated background declarations. If you're using the background shorthand notation, that is. Now if you're passing other background properties through individual declarations, you simply pass comma- separated declarations for their value, which will then be matched with the appropriate background.

If only one value is declared, it's used for all backgrounds. Background-origin allows you to control where the starting point of the background is for the containing element. There are three keywords that allow you to change the origin point of your background image. Padding-box is the default and it sets the origin point for the background in the top left-hand corner. Border-box moves the point relative to the border box itself to the outer border. Now remember that borders paint over backgrounds, but this does allow you to move where the image starts at to the edge of the border itself.

Content-box allows you to move the origin to the top left-hand corner of the content box itself. Now these are minor changes but they can have a huge impact on how backgrounds display. Finally, the background-clip property is very similar to the background-origin, except for the fact that instead of just modifying where the image starts displaying, this defines the area that the background is painted into. It uses the same keywords as background-origin and defines the same area. Padding-box is the default value here as well and it basically paints the background all the way to the edge of the padding box.

Border-box paints the background all the way to the very edge of the border. Again, even though the border will paint over the background, it just sort of extends where the background is painted into. And finally, this one is really interesting. Content-box, this means that the background is only painted into the content region itself and it basically stops at the edge of the padding and you can really create some interesting effects with that. Now support for these new features is fairly varied across browsers. Background-sizing is supported in most major browsers and should be added for Internet Explorer 9.

The new values for background-repeat, as I mentioned, is currently not supported except for Opera 10.5 and above. Multiple background images, you'll be happy to know, is well-supported across most browsers and should be added to IE 9 as well. Background-origin and background-clip are all supported for the most part but I do need to point out that implementations differ and keyboard support can be buggy. Wow man, that was a lot. So now we have covered some of the new background features in CSS 3, let's go ahead and try them out.

We are going to start with controlling background sizing in our next movie.

Find answers to the most frequently asked questions about CSS3 First Look.


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Q: I'm following along with the video "Transparency in CSS3".  James shows us how to achieve transparency in Internet Explorer by going to Kimili.com and entering a HSLA value to generate code for transparency.

Here that code:

background: transparent;-ms-filter: "progid:DXImageTransform.Microsoft.gradient(startColorstr=#BF0E0C0B,endColorstr=#BF0E0C0B)"; /* IE8 */
filter: progid:DXImageTransform.Microsoft.gradient(startColorstr=#BF0E0C0B,endColorstr=#BF0E0C0B); /* IE6 & 7 */ zoom: 1;

When this code is added to my HTML file it removes transparency on browsers that do in fact support it. So I'm left with NO transparency. Why?
A: The problem is in the filter code. If the IE background is called last, the first "transparent" declaration will remove all previous colors, regardless of browser. To resolve this, place the rule inside a conditional comment for IE or remove the "transparent" declaration at the front of the rule.
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