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Vertex groups are handy way to organize a very complicated mesh. Here we have Captain Knowledge, and as you can see he is composed with many different parts, but he is one unified model. Over here in the Editing Context, we have a panel under the Links and Materials devoted to Vertex Groups. And Vertex Groups are a way to break up a mesh by assigning each vertex or face to a particular group. If we go ahead and zoom in on his face here, now I have Ear here selected as the default Vertex Group.
If I press Select here, I'm going to select those vertex groups that are part of the Ear group. I can deselect and then change and select a different Vertex Group, let's say Helmet, and now when I select, now I get the helmet vertices. So if I want to work on just part of a model, or assign let's say I'm working on the face, and I have defined this Face group here, and I press A to deselect everything, and I press Select here, now I'm selecting all of the Face Vertex Groups, and now I can very easily work and assign the same material to those groups as well.
If I don't want a Vertex Group anymore, I can delete the group, or I can create a new group. So let's go ahead and just create a new group, and call it Belt. And now we need to assign some vertexes to that group. So I'm going to select some vertex groups here. Ctrl+L selects the belt buckle, and then select the belt itself by clicking on those faces, and now we click Assign. This assigns these vertices to this particular group.
And I can also then create a new group called Pants, and keep selecting. I would like Face Select Mode when I'm doing vertex groups, but you can also just switch over here to vertices and select individual vertices. And you can assign them to this vertex group. A vertex can be a member of multiple groups. So there is many different ways you can have whole substructures, and sub-groupings, and like that, you can have a hand, as well as a glove vertex and have all of these finger vertices here, all part of multiple groups.
Vertex groups are essential when it comes down to telling which bone needs to apply and affect which parts of the mesh. So vertex groups are a way to manage a very complex mesh in Blender.
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