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If you want to make objects bigger or smaller, you can do that using the Scale Tool. This is very similar to translate and rotate. We have a Scale button here in the Object Tools Panel and the shortcut for that is S. So if I right-click on my chair, hit the letter S for Scale, I can scale the chair up and down. By default it scales uniformly, so it scales in all three axes evenly.
If I hit the X key, I can scale in X, if I hit the Y key, I can scale in Y, and if I hit Z I can scale up and down in the Z axis. And again right-clicking cancels the scale operation. If I have numeric values that I want to scale by, I can just type those in, in the Properties Panel either here or if I expand that in the viewport I can type it here. So for example, if I wanted the chair to be really deep, I can type 2 into Scale and then it will double the depth of the chair, you want to make it wider, I can make it wider in Y by typing 2 into that number as well.
Or I can just spin these just like I can with all the other options to make those, whatever I want. I am going to go ahead and type 1 in to both of these just to reset it. And then I am going to go ahead and hide this Properties Panel. If I want to, I can also use a Manipulator to scale and this is just like the Translate and the Rotate Manipulator. It's at the bottom of every 3D view. All I have to do is click on this and a three pronged icon comes up, a Manipulator.
If I grab the red one, I scale in X, if I grab the green one I scale in Y, and if I grab the blue one, I scale in Z. If I want to flip an object, if I want to mirror it, I can just scale it in the opposite direction. So I can just go past the origin and scale it negative. So those are some the basics of how to scale objects in Blender.
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