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Digital Audio Principles
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Two-track recorders/waveform editors


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Digital Audio Principles

with Dave Schroeder

Video: Two-track recorders/waveform editors

2 Track or Waveform editors are designed for working with mono or stereo files, so you don't get a lot of independent channel control. So they're not great for producing lots of music, but if you're just working with a simple file like a single voice-over file or a single stereo mix of a piece of music, it might be sufficient for just opening it up making some modifications. You can make edits, change the arrangement of sounds within the file, you can also zoom-in really close to make different changes in the waveform or eliminate little things like pops and clicks, and it's a great way to kind of clean up a sound.
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  1. 50s
    1. Welcome
      50s
  2. 39m 10s
    1. What is sound?
      4m 15s
    2. Hertz and frequency response
      5m 34s
    3. Phase
      2m 39s
    4. Capturing audio
      3m 39s
    5. Sample rate
      6m 16s
    6. Bit depth
      9m 47s
    7. The waveform
      5m 3s
    8. Audio file formats
      1m 57s
  3. 7m 25s
    1. What is a digital audio workstation?
      2m 59s
    2. Typical DAW signal flow
      4m 26s
  4. 50m 33s
    1. What microphones do
      1m 57s
    2. Element types
      5m 0s
    3. Pickup patterns
      6m 51s
    4. Axis
      2m 52s
    5. Frequency response and the proximity effect
      5m 10s
    6. Phase issues
      1m 41s
    7. Microphone types
      8m 44s
    8. Miking vocals
      5m 39s
    9. Miking amplifiers
      2m 17s
    10. Miking drums
      10m 22s
  5. 16m 39s
    1. Cables and connectors overview
      2m 42s
    2. Balanced and unbalanced cables
      3m 19s
    3. Common cable types
      7m 13s
    4. Cable tips
      3m 25s
  6. 12m 16s
    1. What is an I/O device?
      1m 41s
    2. Analog to digital conversion
      3m 10s
    3. Tour of an audio interface
      4m 49s
    4. Interface considerations
      2m 36s
  7. 21m 5s
    1. What is a preamp?
      3m 21s
    2. Input levels
      5m 29s
    3. Padding
      2m 18s
    4. Phantom power
      2m 37s
    5. Phase reverse
      3m 4s
    6. Preamp demo
      4m 16s
  8. 12m 56s
    1. What is a mixer?
      5m 55s
    2. Input section
      1m 17s
    3. Channel strips
      3m 16s
    4. Master section
      2m 28s
  9. 18m 21s
    1. What is monitoring?
      2m 11s
    2. Speakers
      4m 47s
    3. Room considerations
      5m 43s
    4. Headphone types
      3m 50s
    5. Monitoring levels
      1m 50s
  10. 15m 23s
    1. What role do computers play?
      1m 36s
    2. Performance issues
      4m 11s
    3. Hard drives
      4m 38s
    4. Mechanical noise
      2m 10s
    5. Authorization
      2m 48s
  11. 6m 54s
    1. Planning for recording
      54s
    2. Doing a system check
      1m 26s
    3. Planning your inputs
      1m 42s
    4. The recording environment
      2m 52s
  12. 25m 52s
    1. Types of digital audio software
      38s
    2. Multi-track recorders/sequencers
      4m 56s
    3. Two-track recorders/waveform editors
      4m 55s
    4. Loop-based music production software
      5m 44s
    5. Plug-ins
      6m 56s
    6. Other varieties
      2m 43s
  13. 18m 59s
    1. Common components
      46s
    2. The transport
      2m 4s
    3. The toolbar
      3m 19s
    4. The Edit/Arrange window
      4m 42s
    5. The mixer
      5m 8s
    6. The file list
      3m 0s
  14. 19m 17s
    1. Setting up a session
      3m 30s
    2. Assigning inputs and getting signals
      3m 19s
    3. Input modes
      3m 28s
    4. Overdubbing and punching
      5m 14s
    5. Bouncing down
      3m 46s
  15. 19m 42s
    1. What is editing?
      1m 21s
    2. Waveforms
      2m 53s
    3. Making silent cuts and trims
      7m 1s
    4. Fades and automation
      8m 27s
  16. 1h 23m
    1. What are plug-ins?
      3m 0s
    2. Using plug-ins
      6m 11s
    3. EQs
      7m 4s
    4. Dynamics pt. 1: Compressors, limiters, expanders, and gates
      5m 40s
    5. Dynamics pt 2: Applying dynamic effects
      7m 2s
    6. Pitch shifting
      6m 14s
    7. Reverb
      9m 28s
    8. Echo and delay
      6m 23s
    9. Modulation effects: Phaser, flanger, and chorus
      9m 39s
    10. Sound tools pt. 1: About, gain, normalize
      7m 39s
    11. Sound tools pt. 2: Reverse and time compression/expansion
      6m 29s
    12. Sound tools pt. 3: Noise reducers, dither
      8m 11s
  17. 23m 43s
    1. What is MIDI?
      3m 6s
    2. Keyboard controllers
      1m 23s
    3. Computer-based virtual instruments
      1m 6s
    4. Control surfaces
      1m 6s
    5. Recording and editing MIDI
      12m 4s
    6. Virtual instruments
      4m 58s
  18. 27m 29s
    1. What is mixing?
      1m 54s
    2. Some common objectives
      3m 4s
    3. Some useful techniques
      5m 59s
    4. A quick mixing demo
      16m 32s
  19. 18m 48s
    1. What is mastering?
      2m 24s
    2. Sonic maximization
      9m 43s
    3. Final preparations and exporting
      6m 41s
  20. 13m 34s
    1. What is audio compression?
      2m 16s
    2. Popular formats
      2m 9s
    3. Bit rate, sample rate, and channels
      5m 42s
    4. Other adjustments and considerations
      3m 27s
  21. 15m 6s
    1. Essential gear
      7m 36s
    2. Voice recording setups
      1m 43s
    3. The voice production process
      5m 47s
  22. 10m 4s
    1. Analog vs. digital
      2m 48s
    2. Tube vs. solid state
      5m 6s
    3. The continual upgrade
      2m 10s
  23. 18s
    1. Goodbye
      18s

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Digital Audio Principles
7h 57m Appropriate for all Mar 02, 2007

Viewers: in countries Watching now:

Whether one is producing music, podcasts, game sounds, or film sound effects, Digital Audio Principles provides the tips and techniques that will make the project a success. Author Dave Schroeder explains the basics of digital audio production techniques and covers the essential hardware and software. He also discusses sound theory, frequency response, the range of human hearing, and dynamic range.

Subjects:
Audio + Music Audio Foundations Acoustics Microphones
Author:
Dave Schroeder

Two-track recorders/waveform editors

2 Track or Waveform editors are designed for working with mono or stereo files, so you don't get a lot of independent channel control. So they're not great for producing lots of music, but if you're just working with a simple file like a single voice-over file or a single stereo mix of a piece of music, it might be sufficient for just opening it up making some modifications. You can make edits, change the arrangement of sounds within the file, you can also zoom-in really close to make different changes in the waveform or eliminate little things like pops and clicks, and it's a great way to kind of clean up a sound.

It's also great for optimizing files. So if you have a three or four different voice-over tracks, and you want to make sure that they are all the same volume, you can bring them into a 2 Track Editor, change the volume accordingly and make sure they all match. It's also good for trimming the heads and tails of audio files if you want to get right up to where the sound begins, and they're also really great applications for converting your final collections to digital actually. And also if you're trying to convert existing files into different formats like digitizing your existing record collection, a 2 Track Editor will do the trick.

Some fairly common 2 Track editors are Bias Peak, Sound Forge, Audacity, and Sound Studio. You can find more information about these online. So Audacity is a dual platform editor, which means you can get versions work for it, for the Mac and the PC, and it happens to be free. You can usually find it online to download. I am sure if you Google Audacity, you will come up with some links to find it. Since we're talking about it, why don't we take a quick look at Audacity and see what you can do with the 2 Track Editor. Okay, so here we are in Audacity, and I've got one track of voice-over that we recorded in, and there is a couple of things I want to go ahead and change, and you can see it looks similar to the other multi-track program, it's the channels represented there, the waveform goes from left to right along the Timeline, and we've got some controls similar to that.

But this is really great for going in and just taking a single track and making a few adjustments to it in terms of kind of what's there and what's not and changing some of the linear relationships of things. So let's take a listen and see what we've got to work with. (female speaker: Welcome to the lynda.com video training Podcast for Friday, January 19th, 2006-- Oops! January 19th, 2007. This is--) Okay, so she clammed it there. She got the dates wrong. (female speaker: January 19th--) All right, so right about there, it sounds good.

(female speaker: January 19th, 2006.) So she kind of picked it up there, right? So here's the clam, the mistake. (female speaker: January 19th, 2006-- Oops!) So I just want to get rid of that and actually act like it never happened. So I delete it, and you notice where we had those points this whole thing slid over. (female speaker: --for Friday, January 19th, 2007.) And voila, sounds great! Smooth, clean. (female speaker: --Podcast for Friday, January 19th, 2007. This is episode 47.) Another thing we can do is use the Mute or Silence function and here we've got a little breath in between a couple of these words.

I can go ahead and highlight that, hit the Mute command, and that will silence that section between those two words or whatever I had highlighted. So let's listen to that. (female speaker: --47. This week--) It's nice and quiet. So that's cool. So this is really nice if you're working with voice-over tracks or any tracks where you have things kind of in between the sounds that you want to get rid of like breaths or pops or clicks. You can also uses this to clean up the heads and tails of your files and go ahead so that you don't have a ton of lead time. Right now what do we have? We have a lot of silence in the beginning of this, and a breath, and we don't really need that.

So we can also delete that, slide everything forward, that's where we start right from the beginning. (female speaker: Welcome to the lynda.com video training Podcast--) Very cool! The other thing we can do is zoom way in. That's one of the things that Waveform editors are pretty well known for. They are really good at zooming in to waveforms right down to what we call the Sample Level. So we can get right in there and really check it out. So these dots now represent a sample. A lot of your multi-track software is now building in the capability to get down this close and do some of this work, but Waveform editors are known for that, so you can get really, really tight into things and kind of scrutinize them and take a look.

So if you want to do some really close or high-level editing, check out things for like pops and clicks. This is a great future of Waveform editors is how close you can zoom in. Even if you have multi-track software, a lot of times it's very convenient to just have a 2 Track or a Waveform Editor for doing kind of quick and simple changes or if you're just working with one file like this, and sometimes it's a lot easier than opening up a big session with lots of channels and all the different things you have to go through. This is kind of a quick and--I don't want to say quick and dirty, but quick and very efficient way to work with sound files.

Next, we will take a look at some loop-based software.

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