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Another thing that can happen with phase when you are recording with microphones is that if you're using more than one, you can have the sound from a sound source arrive at those microphones at different times or at different stages in the phase. Here I show the wave coming in at a different point, and then we see how the waves come out, how that element in there picks that up and takes it, and basically end up with phase cancellation, because it's hitting at different points. So, then you ended up with a cancelled signal. A way to avoid this with microphones is to use what's called the 3:1 Rule.
The 3:1 Rule more or less says, if you place any second microphone, place it at least three times as far away as the closest microphone to avoid phase cancellation. So, if we have our sound source, and we have a microphone, let's call it 1 foot away, the next microphone should be at least 3 or more feet away, to pick it up. Now obviously, this is kind of tricky when you're miking something like a drum set or something like that. So, that's why they put Phase buttons on there, because it's not always possible to be three times as far away.
But even on times if you have a close microphone on a snare drum, try and make that microphone that's on that tom, more than three times away from the microphone that's on the snare. It pays off, because basically, once you achieve the 3:1 gap, the possibility of getting phase cancellation is very low. So, try and apply the 3:1 Rule whenever you can. If you're setting up a mic in a room, you're doing a drum set or you're doing a guitar amp and a second mic to kind of capture the room just try and make sure it's at least three times away from the closest mic.
And that's the 3:1 Rule.
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