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Final preparations and exporting

From: Digital Audio Principles

Video: Final preparations and exporting

The last thing we want to talk about in terms of mastering is preparing your file for the world and then exporting it out. It's good to trim the heads and tails after you do the sonic maximization because a lot of times when you go through that process of turning it up and then compressing it and doing some of the things we did in the last movie, what seems like a silent head or tail you will find actually has some noise there. So it's good to do it after you make your final volume adjustments. So let's zoom in and take a look at our final mix here. We will go ahead and just crank it way up and take a look.

Final preparations and exporting

The last thing we want to talk about in terms of mastering is preparing your file for the world and then exporting it out. It's good to trim the heads and tails after you do the sonic maximization because a lot of times when you go through that process of turning it up and then compressing it and doing some of the things we did in the last movie, what seems like a silent head or tail you will find actually has some noise there. So it's good to do it after you make your final volume adjustments. So let's zoom in and take a look at our final mix here. We will go ahead and just crank it way up and take a look.

I will actually make this is a little bit bigger for all of us, and we will give a listen. This is probably fairly silent. (Audio Playing) Great! So we can get real close. So we want to trim that just before the sound starts. Now sometimes it's nice to leave a little bit of breath at the beginning, but most often you kind of want to let your CD burning software, or whatever it is that you are going to be used to kind of create your final master CD image and use that to kind of set the timings between tracks.

But if you are making something that might go right to MP3 or right to the web, it's nice to give it a little breath there. And if you are making something that's streaming, it's not bad to leave even a little bit more of a head there than usual so that it can buffer a little bit more of the sound, and it starts to stream a little bit smoother. I am not talking about adding ten seconds of silence, but maybe one second, two seconds of silence before it starts to stream. That may actually improve the way it streams. (Music playing.) So that's trimming the head.

We are going to go ahead and draw a little fade there for extra special security so that we know we are starting this file from zero. Now let's go and check out the tail. See how this ends. (Music playing.) So you can actually hear, there is actually a little bit of sound there beyond what we can see.

Let's zoom up and see if we see any of it. No, not a whole lot. It's hard to see, so - [00:02:34.1] (Music playing.) So there is a little bit of ring out seems like to about there or so. So I am going to go ahead and trim her up. And if I go ahead and cut it too close, we will probably be able to hear that difference a little better. (Ring.) Yeah, you can hear that little, that ring. So we want to get it out.

We want that ring to go away on its own. We don't want to be the ones doing that, and we will leave a little extra tail here too. But again, we want it close to where the sound ends. That works. Then we will draw a little fade there to make sure that we get out on zero as well. (Music Playing) Great! So now we have trimmed it, and we have got our file, and the next step to do is either bounce it out or export it.

But before we export it, we want to apply a little bit of dither because we are working in a 24-bit session and I want to export it out to a 16-bit format. So we have trimmed the heads and tails, so now the CD is ready to go. We are starting and stopping nice and clean, no extra noise, and a natural decay there, a nice, natural ending to the sound. So at this point, we can bounce it out or export it out, but one of the things we want to do first is apply dithering, and the reason we want to do that is because we are in a 24-bit session and we want to get this down to a 16-bit depth resolution.

So that means we are going to dither, or add a little bit of noise, so that when it re-samples or down-samples to 16-bit, there is some information for it to have there, which will reduce the potential for little artifacts or little bits of distortion. So we are going to go ahead and we will select the whole monster. From our AudioSuite, we will go to the Dither menu, pick our Dither option, and now we will go ahead and pick our dither rate, and we will go down to 16 Bit, hit process, and away she goes, and we have got our dithered file.

So now, here in Pro Tools, we have two choices. We can bounce this out, which means we go ahead and say Bounce to > Disk, which will send it out and play it in real- time and bounce it down to a format. We have a few choices we can make. We can pick what file type we want to bounce to. AIFF, WAV, SD II, MP3. I am going to stick with WAV because I want to put this on a CD-R. We can go to multiple mono which would be two tracks. We can go to summed mono which would take the stereo mix and make it one mono mix, or we can do stereo interleaved.

And that's what you want to use if you want a stereo file. Also, we have got resolution of 16 bits and that's our target and a sample rate of 44.1, which is the sample rate of the session but also the sample rate that I want to use because I want to burn this on to a CD and not as an MP3, as a full-fledged uncompressed audio file. So we can go ahead and bounce this out and set a destination and send it. The other option is we can just export it because it's already a digital file. So we can go over here, Export Region as File, and we will get a lot of the same options, it's really the same menu, and just choose the destination and the same settings.

So, those are two ways we can get it out and send it out into the world. So I will go ahead and send this baby out into the world, and now that's it. We are done mastering, we have got an audio file somewhere on our hard drive - wherever I just sent that - that we can drag into a CD-burning program. We can drag it into something like iTunes and convert it to an MP3, send it to our mom or our friends. We have got a nice file that's mastered, that's going to be plenty loud, and it's going to start and stop nice and clean because we trimmed the edges. So that's mastering.

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This video is part of

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Digital Audio Principles

110 video lessons · 26795 viewers

Dave Schroeder
Author

 
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  1. 50s
    1. Welcome
      50s
  2. 39m 10s
    1. What is sound?
      4m 15s
    2. Hertz and frequency response
      5m 34s
    3. Phase
      2m 39s
    4. Capturing audio
      3m 39s
    5. Sample rate
      6m 16s
    6. Bit depth
      9m 47s
    7. The waveform
      5m 3s
    8. Audio file formats
      1m 57s
  3. 7m 25s
    1. What is a digital audio workstation?
      2m 59s
    2. Typical DAW signal flow
      4m 26s
  4. 50m 33s
    1. What microphones do
      1m 57s
    2. Element types
      5m 0s
    3. Pickup patterns
      6m 51s
    4. Axis
      2m 52s
    5. Frequency response and the proximity effect
      5m 10s
    6. Phase issues
      1m 41s
    7. Microphone types
      8m 44s
    8. Miking vocals
      5m 39s
    9. Miking amplifiers
      2m 17s
    10. Miking drums
      10m 22s
  5. 16m 39s
    1. Cables and connectors overview
      2m 42s
    2. Balanced and unbalanced cables
      3m 19s
    3. Common cable types
      7m 13s
    4. Cable tips
      3m 25s
  6. 12m 16s
    1. What is an I/O device?
      1m 41s
    2. Analog to digital conversion
      3m 10s
    3. Tour of an audio interface
      4m 49s
    4. Interface considerations
      2m 36s
  7. 21m 5s
    1. What is a preamp?
      3m 21s
    2. Input levels
      5m 29s
    3. Padding
      2m 18s
    4. Phantom power
      2m 37s
    5. Phase reverse
      3m 4s
    6. Preamp demo
      4m 16s
  8. 12m 56s
    1. What is a mixer?
      5m 55s
    2. Input section
      1m 17s
    3. Channel strips
      3m 16s
    4. Master section
      2m 28s
  9. 18m 21s
    1. What is monitoring?
      2m 11s
    2. Speakers
      4m 47s
    3. Room considerations
      5m 43s
    4. Headphone types
      3m 50s
    5. Monitoring levels
      1m 50s
  10. 15m 23s
    1. What role do computers play?
      1m 36s
    2. Performance issues
      4m 11s
    3. Hard drives
      4m 38s
    4. Mechanical noise
      2m 10s
    5. Authorization
      2m 48s
  11. 6m 54s
    1. Planning for recording
      54s
    2. Doing a system check
      1m 26s
    3. Planning your inputs
      1m 42s
    4. The recording environment
      2m 52s
  12. 25m 52s
    1. Types of digital audio software
      38s
    2. Multi-track recorders/sequencers
      4m 56s
    3. Two-track recorders/waveform editors
      4m 55s
    4. Loop-based music production software
      5m 44s
    5. Plug-ins
      6m 56s
    6. Other varieties
      2m 43s
  13. 18m 59s
    1. Common components
      46s
    2. The transport
      2m 4s
    3. The toolbar
      3m 19s
    4. The Edit/Arrange window
      4m 42s
    5. The mixer
      5m 8s
    6. The file list
      3m 0s
  14. 19m 17s
    1. Setting up a session
      3m 30s
    2. Assigning inputs and getting signals
      3m 19s
    3. Input modes
      3m 28s
    4. Overdubbing and punching
      5m 14s
    5. Bouncing down
      3m 46s
  15. 19m 42s
    1. What is editing?
      1m 21s
    2. Waveforms
      2m 53s
    3. Making silent cuts and trims
      7m 1s
    4. Fades and automation
      8m 27s
  16. 1h 23m
    1. What are plug-ins?
      3m 0s
    2. Using plug-ins
      6m 11s
    3. EQs
      7m 4s
    4. Dynamics pt. 1: Compressors, limiters, expanders, and gates
      5m 40s
    5. Dynamics pt 2: Applying dynamic effects
      7m 2s
    6. Pitch shifting
      6m 14s
    7. Reverb
      9m 28s
    8. Echo and delay
      6m 23s
    9. Modulation effects: Phaser, flanger, and chorus
      9m 39s
    10. Sound tools pt. 1: About, gain, normalize
      7m 39s
    11. Sound tools pt. 2: Reverse and time compression/expansion
      6m 29s
    12. Sound tools pt. 3: Noise reducers, dither
      8m 11s
  17. 23m 43s
    1. What is MIDI?
      3m 6s
    2. Keyboard controllers
      1m 23s
    3. Computer-based virtual instruments
      1m 6s
    4. Control surfaces
      1m 6s
    5. Recording and editing MIDI
      12m 4s
    6. Virtual instruments
      4m 58s
  18. 27m 29s
    1. What is mixing?
      1m 54s
    2. Some common objectives
      3m 4s
    3. Some useful techniques
      5m 59s
    4. A quick mixing demo
      16m 32s
  19. 18m 48s
    1. What is mastering?
      2m 24s
    2. Sonic maximization
      9m 43s
    3. Final preparations and exporting
      6m 41s
  20. 13m 34s
    1. What is audio compression?
      2m 16s
    2. Popular formats
      2m 9s
    3. Bit rate, sample rate, and channels
      5m 42s
    4. Other adjustments and considerations
      3m 27s
  21. 15m 6s
    1. Essential gear
      7m 36s
    2. Voice recording setups
      1m 43s
    3. The voice production process
      5m 47s
  22. 10m 4s
    1. Analog vs. digital
      2m 48s
    2. Tube vs. solid state
      5m 6s
    3. The continual upgrade
      2m 10s
  23. 18s
    1. Goodbye
      18s

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