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Digital Audio Principles
Illustration by

Axis


From:

Digital Audio Principles

with Dave Schroeder

Video: Axis

Another thing to understand about microphones and their directionality is what we call Axis, that refers to the relationship between where the microphone is pointed and where the source of the sound is coming from. An On-Axis sound is something that's directly in front of the microphone. Off-Axis is something where it's coming from the side, and it's not pointing right at the side of the pattern, see I have got the patterns here. So that's off-axis. Here is another example on-axis, off-axis. Axis is basically broken down into 360 degrees. If something is dead on, 0 degrees, that's on axis.
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  1. 50s
    1. Welcome
      50s
  2. 39m 10s
    1. What is sound?
      4m 15s
    2. Hertz and frequency response
      5m 34s
    3. Phase
      2m 39s
    4. Capturing audio
      3m 39s
    5. Sample rate
      6m 16s
    6. Bit depth
      9m 47s
    7. The waveform
      5m 3s
    8. Audio file formats
      1m 57s
  3. 7m 25s
    1. What is a digital audio workstation?
      2m 59s
    2. Typical DAW signal flow
      4m 26s
  4. 50m 33s
    1. What microphones do
      1m 57s
    2. Element types
      5m 0s
    3. Pickup patterns
      6m 51s
    4. Axis
      2m 52s
    5. Frequency response and the proximity effect
      5m 10s
    6. Phase issues
      1m 41s
    7. Microphone types
      8m 44s
    8. Miking vocals
      5m 39s
    9. Miking amplifiers
      2m 17s
    10. Miking drums
      10m 22s
  5. 16m 39s
    1. Cables and connectors overview
      2m 42s
    2. Balanced and unbalanced cables
      3m 19s
    3. Common cable types
      7m 13s
    4. Cable tips
      3m 25s
  6. 12m 16s
    1. What is an I/O device?
      1m 41s
    2. Analog to digital conversion
      3m 10s
    3. Tour of an audio interface
      4m 49s
    4. Interface considerations
      2m 36s
  7. 21m 5s
    1. What is a preamp?
      3m 21s
    2. Input levels
      5m 29s
    3. Padding
      2m 18s
    4. Phantom power
      2m 37s
    5. Phase reverse
      3m 4s
    6. Preamp demo
      4m 16s
  8. 12m 56s
    1. What is a mixer?
      5m 55s
    2. Input section
      1m 17s
    3. Channel strips
      3m 16s
    4. Master section
      2m 28s
  9. 18m 21s
    1. What is monitoring?
      2m 11s
    2. Speakers
      4m 47s
    3. Room considerations
      5m 43s
    4. Headphone types
      3m 50s
    5. Monitoring levels
      1m 50s
  10. 15m 23s
    1. What role do computers play?
      1m 36s
    2. Performance issues
      4m 11s
    3. Hard drives
      4m 38s
    4. Mechanical noise
      2m 10s
    5. Authorization
      2m 48s
  11. 6m 54s
    1. Planning for recording
      54s
    2. Doing a system check
      1m 26s
    3. Planning your inputs
      1m 42s
    4. The recording environment
      2m 52s
  12. 25m 52s
    1. Types of digital audio software
      38s
    2. Multi-track recorders/sequencers
      4m 56s
    3. Two-track recorders/waveform editors
      4m 55s
    4. Loop-based music production software
      5m 44s
    5. Plug-ins
      6m 56s
    6. Other varieties
      2m 43s
  13. 18m 59s
    1. Common components
      46s
    2. The transport
      2m 4s
    3. The toolbar
      3m 19s
    4. The Edit/Arrange window
      4m 42s
    5. The mixer
      5m 8s
    6. The file list
      3m 0s
  14. 19m 17s
    1. Setting up a session
      3m 30s
    2. Assigning inputs and getting signals
      3m 19s
    3. Input modes
      3m 28s
    4. Overdubbing and punching
      5m 14s
    5. Bouncing down
      3m 46s
  15. 19m 42s
    1. What is editing?
      1m 21s
    2. Waveforms
      2m 53s
    3. Making silent cuts and trims
      7m 1s
    4. Fades and automation
      8m 27s
  16. 1h 23m
    1. What are plug-ins?
      3m 0s
    2. Using plug-ins
      6m 11s
    3. EQs
      7m 4s
    4. Dynamics pt. 1: Compressors, limiters, expanders, and gates
      5m 40s
    5. Dynamics pt 2: Applying dynamic effects
      7m 2s
    6. Pitch shifting
      6m 14s
    7. Reverb
      9m 28s
    8. Echo and delay
      6m 23s
    9. Modulation effects: Phaser, flanger, and chorus
      9m 39s
    10. Sound tools pt. 1: About, gain, normalize
      7m 39s
    11. Sound tools pt. 2: Reverse and time compression/expansion
      6m 29s
    12. Sound tools pt. 3: Noise reducers, dither
      8m 11s
  17. 23m 43s
    1. What is MIDI?
      3m 6s
    2. Keyboard controllers
      1m 23s
    3. Computer-based virtual instruments
      1m 6s
    4. Control surfaces
      1m 6s
    5. Recording and editing MIDI
      12m 4s
    6. Virtual instruments
      4m 58s
  18. 27m 29s
    1. What is mixing?
      1m 54s
    2. Some common objectives
      3m 4s
    3. Some useful techniques
      5m 59s
    4. A quick mixing demo
      16m 32s
  19. 18m 48s
    1. What is mastering?
      2m 24s
    2. Sonic maximization
      9m 43s
    3. Final preparations and exporting
      6m 41s
  20. 13m 34s
    1. What is audio compression?
      2m 16s
    2. Popular formats
      2m 9s
    3. Bit rate, sample rate, and channels
      5m 42s
    4. Other adjustments and considerations
      3m 27s
  21. 15m 6s
    1. Essential gear
      7m 36s
    2. Voice recording setups
      1m 43s
    3. The voice production process
      5m 47s
  22. 10m 4s
    1. Analog vs. digital
      2m 48s
    2. Tube vs. solid state
      5m 6s
    3. The continual upgrade
      2m 10s
  23. 18s
    1. Goodbye
      18s

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Digital Audio Principles
7h 57m Appropriate for all Mar 02, 2007

Viewers: in countries Watching now:

Whether one is producing music, podcasts, game sounds, or film sound effects, Digital Audio Principles provides the tips and techniques that will make the project a success. Author Dave Schroeder explains the basics of digital audio production techniques and covers the essential hardware and software. He also discusses sound theory, frequency response, the range of human hearing, and dynamic range.

Subjects:
Audio + Music Audio Foundations Acoustics Microphones
Author:
Dave Schroeder

Axis

Another thing to understand about microphones and their directionality is what we call Axis, that refers to the relationship between where the microphone is pointed and where the source of the sound is coming from. An On-Axis sound is something that's directly in front of the microphone. Off-Axis is something where it's coming from the side, and it's not pointing right at the side of the pattern, see I have got the patterns here. So that's off-axis. Here is another example on-axis, off-axis. Axis is basically broken down into 360 degrees. If something is dead on, 0 degrees, that's on axis.

Anything that's off by any degree is referred to by a degree. So this, for example, would be 45 degrees off-axis. The reason axis is important is because as you move your sound source around the microphone or point the microphone in a different direction, the frequency response and sensitivity of the microphone changes. An axis is a way to kind of, it's a way to make a note of how you recorded something and how you plan to pick something up. Let's look a slide that shows our Polar Pattern graph again, but let's think of it in terms of axis this time and not necessarily just response.

So it's a 360 degree circle, here is our polar pattern, a cardioid, the front of the pattern, 0 degrees on-axis, to the sides, 45 degrees, 90 degrees, et cetera, 180 degrees off-axis. So as we move with different patterns we get different frequency response. And the reason this is worth knowing about is that sometimes it's a problem, but sometimes it's a benefit. So if you have a microphone setup, and it gets turned accidentally while things are recording, the voice can change.

For a instance, right now I'm going to turn the way I'm facing this microphone and go off-axis, and you can see if you can see if you can hear any change in my voice at all, now I'm off-axis. Do I sound different? Now, I'm back around to the front. See that makes a difference. The advantage of it existing because you'll say, well, why don't we just make every microphone omni-directional? Is that sometimes there's things you don't want to pickup on-axis, or sometimes there are sounds that are too loud, or sometimes someone's to nasally, so you want them to be off-axis, like here I moved over way to the side of the mic.

See how I sound kind of, I'm not quite there the same way, I am not as present and bright. Sometimes that's an advantage, now I'm back in the front of the mic here talking straight into it. So that's the axis effect. Once you kind of know how a mic deals with that, if it does it all, then you can figure out how to use that as a tool and how to avoid certain things. It's kind of all about matching your sound source with your microphone and the making decisions about how you want to grab that sound source. An axis is actually, it's a tool that you can use if you understand it and worth knowing about.

In the next movie we're going to look at the frequency response of the microphone and the proximity effect.

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