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The history of Java

From: Java Essential Training

Video: The history of Java

The Java programming language has a long history. It started in 1991 when Sun Microsystems began something called The Green Project. The goal of The Green Project was to create a new portable programming language, one that could be used to create applications that could be run on multiple operating systems without having to recompile or port the code. The original name of the language was Oak, for a large oak tree that stood outside the windows of the developers' offices.

The history of Java

The Java programming language has a long history. It started in 1991 when Sun Microsystems began something called The Green Project. The goal of The Green Project was to create a new portable programming language, one that could be used to create applications that could be run on multiple operating systems without having to recompile or port the code. The original name of the language was Oak, for a large oak tree that stood outside the windows of the developers' offices.

But between the time the project began and the time the language was released, it was renamed as Java supposedly because of the amount of coffee that the developers were drinking. Java was first released to the public in 1995 and thereafter saw a rapid evolution and change. Starting in 1995 the phrase Write Once, Run Anywhere was popularized. Again the goal of Java was that you'd be able to write a program, you'd be able to compile it once and then run it on UNIX, on Windows, on Mac, and other operating systems for which there was a Java virtual machine.

Java evolved swiftly. In the early years there was a new release about once a year. In 1996, Sun released the first complete Java Developers Kit or JDK supporting a broad range of application development tasks, version 1.1, the following year saw improvements to the object- oriented nature of Java with Inner classes and JavaBeans, the JDBC API for talking to databases, RMI or Remote Method Invocation for distributed systems, and Reflection for improving the dynamic capabilities of the language.

In 1998, Java was rebranded as J2SE or Java 2 Standard Edition. The Standard Edition distinguished it from Enterprise Edition which was the framework for building large scale Web applications. The version number was Java 2, version 1.2. A little confusing, and the 2 after the J stuck around for many, many years, but the versions were incremented using point numbers. Java2SE 1.2 included the swing graphical API for building Desktop applications, the collections framework for managing multiple data elements, and new tools including the Just-In-Time compiler and the Java Plug-in which standardized the version of Java across Web browsers.

A couple of years later J2SE 1.3 added new tools including the HotSpot JVM, a new version of the Java Virtual machine, the Java Sound API and improved debugging. In 2002 version 1.4 added new tools in the language, and then in 2004, a major new release came out J2SE 5.0. This version was known both as 1.5 and 5.0. But subsequent new releases would just use the major numbers.

So it'd become 5.0, 6.0, 7.0 and so on. J2SE 5.0 was a major new change for the language, a new feature called Generics was implemented that lets you strongly data type collection elements. Enumerations, variable arguments, and looping with for-each were all improved. And in terms of language syntax this was really the last major change to the language. Everything since then has been nibbling around the edges.

In 2006 Java 6.0 came out. It improved performance for database connectivity, improved graphical programming and added other small features to the language. And then the pace of change slowed, from 2006 to 2010 Sun Microsystems released occasional maintenance releases to the language. So you'd have Java 6.0 Maintenance Release 10, 11, 12, and so on. And as of this recording Java 6.0 Maintenance Release 29 is the most recent version of that version of Java.

Then in 2010 a major event occurred. Oracle bought Sun. Sun Microsystems and all of its assets including the Java programming language became a part of Oracle. And as of the time of this recording Oracle Corporation manages Java along with JCP, the Java Community Process that Sun began. In 2011 J2SE 7 was released. It included minor changes in the language listed here and some other small scale tools.

And we are expecting another version of Java down the road, possibly known as J2SE 8.0 and it would include many things that were deferred from the version 7.0 effort including something called Lambda expressions or closures. If you don't know what those are, don't worry about it, they are not currently a part of the Java language. So that's what's happened in the world of Java since it began. Java has been around in strength since 1995 and it's been used in a lot of programming environments, and I'll talk about some of those programming environments in the next video.

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This video is part of

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Java Essential Training

71 video lessons · 68931 viewers

David Gassner
Author

 
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  1. 10m 8s
    1. Welcome
      1m 3s
    2. Is this course for you?
      5m 35s
    3. Using the exercise files
      3m 30s
  2. 31m 24s
    1. The history of Java
      5m 19s
    2. Java compilation and syntax
      8m 54s
    3. Understanding the principles of Java
      8m 28s
    4. Choosing a development environment
      8m 43s
  3. 19m 5s
    1. Installing Java on Windows
      6m 42s
    2. Installing Eclipse on Windows
      3m 19s
    3. Exploring Java on Mac OS X Leopard and Snow Leopard
      2m 27s
    4. Installing Java on Mac OS X Lion
      3m 27s
    5. Installing Eclipse on Mac OS X
      3m 10s
  4. 46m 10s
    1. Creating a Hello World application
      11m 7s
    2. Exploring the Eclipse IDE
      8m 55s
    3. Compiling and running from the command line
      8m 2s
    4. Passing arguments to the application
      8m 17s
    5. Using the Java API documentation
      4m 5s
    6. Memory management and garbage collection
      5m 44s
  5. 58m 57s
    1. Everything is an object
      5m 59s
    2. Declaring and initializing variables
      9m 15s
    3. Working with numbers
      8m 32s
    4. Converting numeric values
      6m 40s
    5. Understanding operators
      7m 58s
    6. Working with character values
      5m 14s
    7. Working with boolean values
      5m 13s
    8. Outputting primitive values as strings
      5m 33s
    9. Creating a simple calculator application
      4m 33s
  6. 53m 40s
    1. Writing conditional code
      5m 35s
    2. Using the switch statement
      8m 50s
    3. Repeating code blocks with loops
      7m 35s
    4. Creating reusable code with methods
      6m 31s
    5. Declaring methods with arguments
      5m 41s
    6. Overloading method names with different signatures
      5m 53s
    7. Passing arguments by reference or by value
      5m 35s
    8. Creating a more complex calculator application
      8m 0s
  7. 20m 30s
    1. Using the String class
      5m 44s
    2. Building strings with StringBuilder
      3m 34s
    3. Parsing string values
      3m 19s
    4. Working with date values
      7m 53s
  8. 20m 44s
    1. Understanding compile-time vs. runtime errors
      4m 5s
    2. Handling exceptions with try/catch
      4m 55s
    3. Throwing exceptions in methods
      2m 50s
    4. Using the debugger
      8m 54s
  9. 32m 22s
    1. Using simple arrays
      4m 47s
    2. Using two-dimensional arrays
      6m 17s
    3. Managing resizable arrays with ArrayList
      7m 14s
    4. Managing unordered data with HashMap
      6m 5s
    5. Looping through collections with iterators
      7m 59s
  10. 52m 2s
    1. Understanding encapsulation
      5m 59s
    2. Creating and instantiating custom classes
      8m 8s
    3. Organizing classes with packages
      6m 47s
    4. Creating and using instance methods
      6m 52s
    5. Storing data in instance variables
      6m 56s
    6. Using constructor methods
      5m 40s
    7. Managing instance data with getter and setter methods
      8m 26s
    8. Using class variables and Enum classes
      3m 14s
  11. 41m 15s
    1. Understanding inheritance and polymorphism
      9m 12s
    2. Extending custom classes
      9m 1s
    3. Overriding superclass methods
      3m 8s
    4. Casting subclass objects
      5m 3s
    5. Understanding interfaces and implementing classes
      4m 2s
    6. Creating your own interfaces
      4m 14s
    7. Using abstract classes and methods
      6m 35s
  12. 32m 17s
    1. Managing files with the core class library
      7m 46s
    2. Managing files with Apache Commons FileUtils
      7m 32s
    3. Reading a text file from a networked resource
      7m 52s
    4. Parsing an XML file with DOM
      9m 7s
  13. 17m 39s
    1. Creating your own JAR files
      4m 54s
    2. Understanding the classpath
      5m 2s
    3. Documenting code with Javadoc
      7m 43s
  14. 47s
    1. Goodbye
      47s

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