Understanding alpha channels
Video: Understanding alpha channelsNow if you remember, earlier in this lesson, when we imported our snowstorm title, After Effects asked us what type of alpha channel this layer had. At the time, we clicked on Guess, and After Effects correctly guessed that it was pre-multiplied with white. I thought it would be useful to explain, in a little more detail, the difference between straight and pre-multiplied. Now you will not see this dialog, unless the alpha channel is unlabeled. Unlabeled alpha channels may come from outside of the Creative Suite.
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Trish Meyer leads beginners through a gentle introduction to Adobe After Effects: from creating a new project and importing sources, through arranging and animating layers, applying effects, and creating variations, to rendering the final movie. However, this is no paint-by-numbers exercise. Trish demonstrates how she makes creative decisions and saves time through the use of keyboard shortcuts and smart working practices. Additional movies explain further details about how After Effects works under the hood. Her measured pace helps even those completely new to After Effects understand the program so that they can use it effectively on their own projects. Exercise files are included with the course.
The After Effects Apprentice videos on lynda.com were created by Trish and Chris Meyer and are designed to be used on their own and as a companion to their book After Effects Apprentice. We are honored to host these tutorials in the lynda.com Online Training Library®.
- Starting a project from scratch
- Building a composition
- Arranging and transforming layers interactively and numerically
- Animating parameters including motion paths
- Applying and re-using effects
- Creating variations and rendering the final movie
- Importing layered Photoshop files
- Understanding alpha channels
- Avoiding common mistakes
Understanding alpha channels
Now if you remember, earlier in this lesson, when we imported our snowstorm title, After Effects asked us what type of alpha channel this layer had. At the time, we clicked on Guess, and After Effects correctly guessed that it was pre-multiplied with white. I thought it would be useful to explain, in a little more detail, the difference between straight and pre-multiplied. Now you will not see this dialog, unless the alpha channel is unlabeled. Unlabeled alpha channels may come from outside of the Creative Suite.
Photoshop, Illustrator, and After Effects always label their alpha channels, but if you don't ever see this dialog box, I do want to point out that there's a preference that someone may have set that will always get the dialog. Click OK and I'll show you Preferences > Import. The default is to always ask the user if After Effects comes across an unlabeled alpha. If someone had set this preference to Guess, After Effects will always guess, and sometimes it guesses incorrectly. So I like to leave it set to Ask User.
That way it makes me think whenever I come across an unlabeled alpha channel. Now if I drag this title I just imported into my composition, I can see it has a nice shadow fading out to transparency. Again, my background color is transparency. I can also refer to the alpha channel in order to see transparency. But I did want to point out that underneath the hood, After Effects processes all layers for transparency as if they had a straight alpha channel.
You can see this view by checking on the Channel's pop up and selecting RGB straight. Whoa! This looks a little strange, but this is actually what's going on underneath the hood. The drop shadow surrounding the letters is being extended all the way out well past the edge of the shadow. You could think of this as it's bleeding. It's bleeding the color all the way past the edge of the alpha channel. So when the alpha channel is used, you get a nice clean image.
So even though the black drop shadow was originally mixed with a white color, After Effects has un-multiplied the white and has returned the shadow to be 100% black. Now you will never work in this view, but it's sometimes worth looking at it just to reiterate how After Effects renders internally. Now to explain the differences between straight and pre-multiplied, I created a couple of files that I will open in Photoshop. First, I'd like to remind you what a normal Photoshop layered file would look like.
I probably would have created it as a layered file on a transparent background. In that case, the channels would simply say RGB. It would not have a separate alpha channel. That's because each layer in Photoshop has an alpha channel built-in. When I save this file and import it into After Effects, the alpha channel would be labeled, so After Effects would not ask me to interpret it. I just wanted to point out this version first, before we see the two odd versions I've created.
The first one is pre-multiplied with white. This is the same file we imported earlier. In this case, my image is on the background, and I have RGB and alpha, four channels--a 32-bit file, in other words--and the transparency is built into the alpha channel. Now you probably know that the background layer in Photoshop has no alpha channel, so that's why we had to create the alpha channel separately. Now normally, you would not create a file like this directly in Photoshop, but if you were rendering, let's say a 3-D animation from another program, when it renders with an alpha channel, it will be in the form of a 32-bit file: RGB and a separate alpha.
Whether or not it's a pre-multiplied alpha will be determined by how you save it, from that program. If I had saved it as pre-multiplied with white or black or yellow or blue or any color, any areas that are semi-transparent in the color channels would be mixed with that background color. In this case, it's mixed with white. This is why we call this a pre-multiplied with white file. Now, After Effects needs to know this, because it needs to remove the white from that black drop shadow.
Let's look at the other file I have created. This is a straight alpha channel. Again, I'd never create this directly in Photoshop, but this could simulate a frame rendered from a 3-D program, if you set it to render with a straight alpha. In this case, the black shadow would be extended all the way past the edge of the alpha channel. In fact, you may not even see this white background. It would be just totally black all the way to the edge of the frame. The alpha channel, by the way, is the same in all files.
So when After Effects asks you to interpret the alpha channel, it's kind of like a trick question, because the alpha channel is the same in both versions. The difference is how the color channels are created. Are the semi-transparent pixels, mixed with the background color, or do they bleed past the edge of the semitransparent pixels in the alpha? Let's return to After Effects, and I wanted to point out one other thing. What happens if you interpret the alpha channel incorrectly? In this case, this is my regular title, which has a black shadow. I know it has a black shadow.
I've seen it in Photoshop. And yet when I import it into After Effects, it has this odd white halo. This might be an indication that After Effects guessed incorrectly, or maybe I guessed it incorrectly. Now this is easy to fix. You don't need to re-import the file; the dialog that you saw for interpreting the alpha can be brought up again at any time. So here is the title I am using in this composition, Snowstorm title, and it's being interpreted as having a straight alpha channel.
Now, we know that's not correct. It should be pre-multiplied with white. So if you think the alpha channel is interpreted incorrectly, select the footage item in the Project panel and click on the Interpret Footage button at the bottom left-hand corner of the Project panel. When the Interpret Footage dialog opens, at the top will be the alpha channel options you saw before. The other options below, we will cover those in the later lesson. So again the options for alpha are to ignore the alpha, consider it as a straight alpha--meaning don't do any correction around the edges to try to remove any color--and then pre-multiplied with whichever color you like.
If I click Guess, it will correctly guess it's pre-multiplied with white. When I click OK, After Effects will update its alpha channel interpretation. You can see that it clearly has a nice clean alpha channel. Now the opposite may also be true. Quite often, you may have a title with a nice white glow on a black background, so, the opposite of a black shadow on a white background. In that case, the correct interpretation would be pre-multiplied with black. And if you use straight, then instead of white glow, you would have a black halo.
But generally speaking, if the edges look a little weird, do check the interpretation, and make sure that it's correctly interpreted. I will leave you with this final thought. Here are my three files: the layered Photoshop file, the file pre-multiplied with white with the white removed, and the straight alpha channel. If you're wondering what the difference is, there shouldn't be a difference. If After Effects has correctly interpreted the alpha channel for each individual file, they should all look identical when placed in the composition.
In addition, the alpha channels are also identical. Remember what type of alpha channel it has is a trick question. The alpha channels in this case are exactly the same in each file, and I hope that helps you understand a little about the differences between a pre-multiplied and a straight alpha. Alpha channels is a big subject, but I hope that's enough to get you started, especially when you're importing sources.
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