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Using other Date/Time functions

From: Access 2010: Queries in Depth

Video: Using other Date/Time functions

Typically, dates and times stored within your database are very specific. Dates are usually specific to a particular day and times are specific to the minute. When it comes time to query your data by month or year, Access provides a few simple ways to extract just the level of precision that you need from your Date and Time fields. Let's go to Create and we'll take a look at a new query in Design view. We'll add tbl_DirectCustomers, tbl_Orders, and tbl_Products. Let's go ahead and close Show Table. Now, let's say we want to take a look at the orders that came from specific states over a specific reporting period.

Using other Date/Time functions

Typically, dates and times stored within your database are very specific. Dates are usually specific to a particular day and times are specific to the minute. When it comes time to query your data by month or year, Access provides a few simple ways to extract just the level of precision that you need from your Date and Time fields. Let's go to Create and we'll take a look at a new query in Design view. We'll add tbl_DirectCustomers, tbl_Orders, and tbl_Products. Let's go ahead and close Show Table. Now, let's say we want to take a look at the orders that came from specific states over a specific reporting period.

We'll add states to our query. We'll add State to our query and we'll add Price from the Products table. Let's turn on the Totals row, because we want to group everything down to the State. We could turn this Group By to a Sum to get a sum total for each state. If we run this, Access will return a list of each state listed, we have 50 represented, and the total price that each State has contributed to our overall bottom line. Now, keep in mind that the SumOfPrice is adding up all transactions of the entire life of our database, which goes back several years.

Let's go back into our Design view and see how we can control this a little bit. In Design view I'll right-click in the third field here, and invoke the Expression Builder. Let's take a look at some functions here. We'll go into Functions > Built-In Functions > Date/Time. Let's take a look at a function called Year. If I double-click to add it to my Expression Builder, we'll see that Year requires one input and that's a Date field. We'll click on that to activate it and then we'll find the Date field from our Orders table. Expand the TwoTrees database, Tables, Orders and double-click on OrderDate.

So now we've got a function that says we want to extract just the Year from the OrderDate table. Let's go ahead and say OK. Now we're going to group by the years that are extracted. If we run this query, we'll see that each state gets every year listed, so we have data from 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, and 2010 in our database and each month and the SumOfPrice aggregation is now left at the Year level instead of the lifetime of the database level. Let's change this up and look at it for month. We'll go back into Design view and since we already have this constructed, we can easily change this instead of Year, we can delete Year and write in the word Month.

Now, Access is going to extract just the month from the OrderDate. If I run that, we'll see basically the same thing. We have our months here on the right side, January through December for each state, so Alaska, January through December, and our SomeOfPrice is aggregating to the month level. Now we do have several years represented here. So this is actually aggregating all of the Januaries together for instance, and that equals $539 and then all of the Februaries regardless of which year. So in order to make more sense of this, we might want to aggregate based off the year and month simultaneously.

Let's go ahead and write that in here. Year, open parentheses and then we'll reference our OrderDate field, square bracket, tbl_Orders, closing bracket. That's the table it comes from. I will expand that over a little bit. Next I need our separator, which is the exclamation mark, and then we need to tell it what field within the table, the OrderDate field. We'll input a closing square bracket. Finally, we'll finish our Year function with a closing parenthesis. Now, we've got the year extracted, and the month extracted.

If I run that, we'll see that we now have our data broken out byyear and month for the SumOfPrice aggregated to that level. In order to maintain flexibility it's always best to store database upon the finest level of detail that you could ever conceivably require. Using queries, it's easy enough to strip away all of the fluff based on the specific task that you're working with when you don't need that level of detail. With these date and time functions, Access makes it easy to see exactly what you need and nothing that you don't.

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Access 2010: Queries in Depth

46 video lessons · 13817 viewers

Adam Wilbert
Author

 
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  1. 9m 9s
    1. Welcome
      1m 10s
    2. Using the exercise files
      41s
    3. Introducing the database
      4m 29s
    4. Previewing the course
      2m 49s
  2. 17m 17s
    1. Understanding queries
      3m 31s
    2. Following naming conventions and best practices
      2m 56s
    3. Using the Query Wizard
      5m 21s
    4. Exploring the design interface
      5m 29s
  3. 26m 39s
    1. Defining criteria
      5m 40s
    2. Understanding comparison operators
      3m 19s
    3. Defining the column headers
      2m 49s
    4. Exploring the property sheet
      7m 32s
    5. Printing query results
      2m 41s
    6. Working with joins
      4m 38s
  4. 14m 14s
    1. Understanding parameter queries
      4m 27s
    2. Obtaining parameters from forms
      5m 17s
    3. Creating a combo box
      4m 30s
  5. 23m 24s
    1. Understanding the Totals field
      5m 31s
    2. Creating aggregate calculations
      3m 31s
    3. Exploring the Expression Builder interface
      4m 28s
    4. Using mathematical operators
      5m 46s
    5. Applying text functions
      4m 8s
  6. 24m 23s
    1. Understanding dates as serial numbers
      2m 42s
    2. Specifying a range of dates or times
      3m 47s
    3. Formatting dates
      4m 31s
    4. Using other Date/Time functions
      3m 47s
    5. Defining today's date
      2m 41s
    6. Calculating time intervals
      6m 55s
  7. 20m 9s
    1. Introducing the conditional IIf function
      2m 57s
    2. Creating an IIf function
      7m 31s
    3. Nesting IIf functions
      4m 57s
    4. Using the Switch function
      4m 44s
  8. 20m 41s
    1. Understanding the reporting tool
      2m 13s
    2. Building the form
      6m 57s
    3. Building the query
      5m 4s
    4. Building the report
      3m 30s
    5. Finalizing the reporting tool
      2m 57s
  9. 25m 37s
    1. Finding duplicate records
      2m 17s
    2. Identifying unmatched records
      2m 29s
    3. Creating crosstab results
      2m 57s
    4. Creating backups
      1m 29s
    5. Creating update queries
      3m 22s
    6. Making, deleting, and appending records
      5m 36s
    7. Uniting tables
      3m 16s
    8. Embedding SQL code in queries
      4m 11s
  10. 1m 0s
    1. Next Steps
      1m 0s

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