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Writing a C# program

From: Visual Studio 2010 Essential Training

Video: Writing a C# program

C# is a very popular programming language for writing .NET applications. Many people consider it the de facto language for .NET, and rarely consider using the other in-box languages. For most of the examples in this course, I will be using C#, so this is a good time to explore the basics of the C# language and its code editor. I'm inside Visual Studio, and I've opened this project called CSharpEditor. I'm going to double-click on this Program.cs file to open it up in the code editor, and then we're going to start writing our code here on my machine on line 11 in this static void Main method, which, since this is a console application, is considered the starting point of the app.

Writing a C# program

C# is a very popular programming language for writing .NET applications. Many people consider it the de facto language for .NET, and rarely consider using the other in-box languages. For most of the examples in this course, I will be using C#, so this is a good time to explore the basics of the C# language and its code editor. I'm inside Visual Studio, and I've opened this project called CSharpEditor. I'm going to double-click on this Program.cs file to open it up in the code editor, and then we're going to start writing our code here on my machine on line 11 in this static void Main method, which, since this is a console application, is considered the starting point of the app.

I just pressed the Enter key to enter a new line of code. You'll notice that on the left margin there's a yellow marker over there now. That signifies that I have made a change since I've opened this file, but I haven't saved the changes yet. If I save the file by clicking on this Save button up here on the toolbar, you'll notice that it changes to a green bar. That signifies that I have made some changes since I opened the project, but I have currently saved them to the hard drive.

So it's a status symbol. I'm going to write some code to read and write from the console. I'm going to start by writing "hello" to the console. I'll type in the word "Console". Notice that I get IntelliSense; I get this dropdown window. I have more details on IntelliSense in another movie later in this title. And then I'm going to press the Tab key to finish typing. Then I'll type dot, and then, the word "WriteLine". I've got enough of the word WriteLine written now, so I can just press the Tab key again.

Then the open paren, close paren, and the semicolon. In C# you always end your lines of code with your semicolons, and you always write your code within curly braces. What do I want to write? I need to put a string in here, so I'm going to say "Hello". If I come up and I run the application at this moment by saying Start Debugging, the application will start and run, and immediately stop. It ran so fast you might not even have seen that flash on the screen.

I need to wait to see the results of the application. So, Visual Studio provides this mechanism, Debug > Start Without Debugging. Let's see the difference. I'll say Start Without Debugging. It prints my application. My application is now terminated, but it leaves it on the screen so that I can see the end results. When I'm done looking at the end results, I can press any key on my keyboard, and it'll then terminate that window. If I'd rather not run using Start Without Debugging, I can write my own line of code to listen to the users keystrokes by typing in "Console.ReadLine". And what this does is it stops, waits for the user to type something in the keyboard, and then press Enter before it continues.

Let me modify this a bit. "Hello. What is your name?" Then on my ReadLine, I'm going to declare a variable to hold the user's name. I'm going to do that here on line 15 on my computer. I'm going to say "string name =", and then I'll copy this code; Ctrl+C. Paste it in; Ctrl+V. So, what this is going to do it's going to say "Hello. What is your name?" and then I'm going to read from the Console whatever the user types, and then I'm going to wait for them to type something else in.

That way, the application won't end immediately. And then down here, I am going to output whatever the user typed in back to the console. Now, down here, I'll say "Console.WriteLine", and then I need my semicolon at the end. So, what am I going to do here? I'm going to say "Hello", and then this is the concatenation operator, meaning I'm going to take one string from the user and I'm going to add it to the end of the other string from my code.

I'm going to say "Hello "+ name. I think that's good; let's try it out. Debug > Start Debugging. It says, "Hello. What is your name?" I'm going to type my name in, "Walt Ritscher", and then press the Enter key, and then I see my name mirrored back to me, "Hello, Walt Ritscher." It's now waiting for me to press the Enter key to terminate the application. I showed you one way to create a variable. There's another way to create a variable that's very popular now in C#. You can use the var keyword.

The var keyword says to the compiler, "I'm going to declare a variable," demo, "and I want you to figure out the type of the variable." So, if I say var demo = 6;, that's telling the compiler to look at this number 6. Let me hover my cursor over it. And that is an Int32, which means it's a 32-bit integer, and I want you to make this variable of type Int32. This is the same as me typing in "Int32 demo" like that.

These are equivalent lines of code. I'm a personal fan of using the var keyword. I like using it a lot. Sometimes you're going to work with code that has long names. Let me show you another example: var fs = new System.IO.FileStream();. I'm going to press the Tab key to finish typing here. So again, I'm asking to the compiler to figure out the data type of this variable. It's going to look at the right side of the assignment operator and see that I'm asking for it to make a new instance of the FileStream class.

So it's going to make this variable type FileStream. There is a way to limit how much typing I have to do. I can eliminate having to type this namespace at the beginning of the word "FileStream" by going to the top of my code, up here at the top of my Code window, and typing in what's called a using directive, "using System.IO;". Now, down here in the body of my code, I can eliminate the word "System.IO". So this cleans up my code quite a bit and makes it a little more readable while I'm writing my application.

Now you've seen the basics of reading and writing information to the console. C# is a powerful language and a perfect companion to working in .NET. This is not a C# tutorial, however, so if you are new to the language, you will need to dig into the documentation. Be sure and check lynda.com for other movies related to this topic.

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This video is part of

Image for Visual Studio 2010 Essential Training
Visual Studio 2010 Essential Training

86 video lessons · 31515 viewers

Walt Ritscher
Author

 
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  1. 2m 3s
    1. Welcome
      1m 2s
    2. Using the exercise files
      1m 1s
  2. 7m 19s
    1. Understanding the Visual Studio versions
      3m 51s
    2. Setting up your developer computer
      3m 28s
  3. 58m 2s
    1. Creating a Visual Studio project
      4m 58s
    2. Working with Solution Explorer
      6m 32s
    3. Working with big projects
      3m 53s
    4. Taking a tour of the Integrated Developer Environment (IDE)
      8m 36s
    5. Introducing drag-and-drop UI design
      7m 38s
    6. Working with the Properties window
      6m 44s
    7. Looking at Server Explorer
      7m 4s
    8. Exploring the new Help engine
      6m 41s
    9. Setting options for the IDE
      5m 56s
  4. 39m 25s
    1. Creating a simple WPF application
      1m 32s
    2. Building the UI with the editors
      9m 14s
    3. Working with the application code
      3m 37s
    4. Communicating with the web site
      7m 15s
    5. Connecting your data
      8m 4s
    6. Binding to an RSS feed
      5m 4s
    7. Packaging and deploying the application
      4m 39s
  5. 39m 46s
    1. What languages are supported in Visual Studio 2010?
      1m 17s
    2. Exploring basic settings for the Code Editor
      5m 35s
    3. Writing a C# program
      6m 48s
    4. Writing a VB program
      6m 29s
    5. Working with C++
      6m 38s
    6. Working with F Sharp
      6m 9s
    7. Font and color options
      6m 50s
  6. 1h 5m
    1. Formatting your code
      6m 43s
    2. Navigating your code
      7m 44s
    3. Using the Task List
      2m 26s
    4. Commenting your code
      2m 45s
    5. Documenting your code
      8m 26s
    6. Using IntelliSense effectively
      7m 0s
    7. Working with code snippets
      6m 25s
    8. Refactoring your code
      5m 15s
    9. Understanding code generation
      2m 10s
    10. Generating code with T4
      6m 29s
    11. Using the Class View, Class Designer, and Class Diagram tools
      5m 51s
    12. Refactoring VB with CodeRush Xpress
      4m 33s
  7. 1h 11m
    1. Working with project and item templates
      8m 38s
    2. Creating a console application
      7m 5s
    3. Creating a class library
      6m 26s
    4. Creating a web site with ASP.NET
      7m 37s
    5. Creating a rich internet application with Silverlight
      6m 57s
    6. Creating a classic Windows application with Windows Forms
      10m 31s
    7. Creating a dramatic Windows application with Windows Presentation Foundation (WPF)
      4m 41s
    8. Creating a WCF service
      9m 1s
    9. Using an existing WCF service
      6m 38s
    10. Navigation UI designs with the Document Outline view
      3m 41s
  8. 33m 18s
    1. Creating a data project with SQL Project
      6m 24s
    2. Clarifying the confusion on .NET Data
      3m 31s
    3. Using ADO.NET in your application
      6m 50s
    4. Creating typed datasets
      7m 55s
    5. Using the data binding tools
      8m 38s
  9. 30m 13s
    1. Debugging code
      9m 32s
    2. Working with the Watch and other debug windows
      7m 46s
    3. Other debugging techniques
      6m 50s
    4. IntelliTrace historical debugging in Visual Studio Ultimate
      6m 5s
  10. 17m 56s
    1. Understanding Visual Studio editions and test tools
      2m 22s
    2. Verifying your code with unit tests
      8m 58s
    3. Running performance and load tests
      6m 36s
  11. 34m 5s
    1. Building your application
      4m 19s
    2. Customizing the build process with MSBuild
      6m 36s
    3. Setting assembly information
      2m 12s
    4. Deploying a basic Windows application
      2m 19s
    5. Creating an installer with Visual Studio
      7m 39s
    6. Creating a ClickOnce application
      5m 13s
    7. Setting up IIS for deploy
      2m 9s
    8. Deploying a Silverlight or ASP.NET application
      3m 38s
  12. 14m 0s
    1. Understanding source control
      2m 9s
    2. Setting up Team Foundation Server source control
      3m 5s
    3. Using Team Foundation Server source control
      8m 46s
  13. 17m 31s
    1. Understanding the .NET Office integration
      4m 16s
    2. Making a Word 2010 application
      7m 54s
    3. Making an Excel 2010 add-in
      5m 21s
  14. 31m 34s
    1. Understanding the extensibility model in Visual Studio
      2m 17s
    2. Adding external tools to the Tools menu
      4m 42s
    3. Creating macros
      7m 16s
    4. Using the Extension Manager
      5m 1s
    5. Creating an MEF add-in
      7m 9s
    6. Deploying and installing an add-in with VSIX
      5m 9s
  15. 25m 34s
    1. Working with configuration files
      5m 37s
    2. Using the Settings Editor
      7m 30s
    3. Using the Resources Editor
      6m 59s
    4. Localizing your resources
      5m 28s
  16. 1m 17s
    1. Goodbye
      1m 17s

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