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After installing SQL Server and connecting to it for the first time from SQL Server Management Studio, you are ready to create your first database. The name of the file is mybookstore.sql. It's a text file that you can open in any text editor. The file uses a database named mybookstore defined at the top of the file. And then it looks for four database tables called authors, publishers, titles and users. For each of these tables, if the tables exist it first deletes them, which is an operation in SQL called dropping the table.
In the next section, it creates new versions of the tables. For example, this code that I'm selecting creates the table users and defines its structure. I'll turn Word Wrap on so that you can see all of the code that's involved. The users table contains a column called uteri, which is the primary key known in SQL Server as an identity column. An identity column is an integer column that auto increments, that is, each time a new record is added to the database table that database assigns the next available numeric value. There are also columns called user_name, user_password and user_roles which are variable, character, or string fields that can hold up to 50 characters each.
The next table is called titles. The titles table once again has a primary key, which is an identity column, this time named title_id. It contains two columns called pub_id and au_id for author id, which are integers. A column called title, which can contain a string of up to 80 characters. The price, which is a money value or a currency value. The pubdate, which is a date time. And a notes column, which is a variable, character, or string field containing up to 200 characters.
Once again this table has a single column primary key, the title_id. Below the code to create that table you will find a series of Insert statements. Each Insert statement creates one record in the titles table. Continuing further down the file, you will find code to create a publishers table, pub_id, which is the primary key and again is integer identity column. And pub_name, a variable character column containing up to 40 characters.
And then once again you will find a set of Insert statements that add the data. And the last table is called authors. The authors table contains a primary key named au_id using the same type and rules as all of the primary keys in the database. au_lname and au_fname, which are variable character fields. Phone, address, city, state and zip, which are all variable character or character columns. Once again there is a single column primary key based on the au_id column and below that a set of Insert statements to add the data.
So, here's how you will use the SQL file if you have access to it. I'll first reopen SQL Server Management Studio. I'm working in Windows Vista so it's a little bit easier in Vista to find the application. I simply type in part of the application name, Management Studio and when I see it appear at the top, I select it. If you are using Windows XP, you will need to go through the All Programs menu tree. This time I'll show you an alternative approach to connect into your database. Instead of using the actual machine name, this time I'm going to connect using localhost\SQLExpress and I'll use Windows Authentication rather than SQL Server Authentication. I'm still connecting to the same database server as I did in another video though. And I click the Connect button.
Once the database is open, I'll then take a look at the Databases list and show that there are no user databases currently created. Now to create my first database, I'll right click on Databases and select New Database. I'll name the database, mybookstore. When you create a new database in SQL Server you will be creating two files. The primary file, which contains the data, and the log file, which tracks changes to the data for backup and restore purposes.
In the Database file section you will see that the actual names and location of the files are listed. They are created automatically under a data folder under your SQL Server installation folder, MSSQL folder. The name of the file will match the name of the database. The primary file will have a file extension of MDF and the secondary or log file has a file extension of LDF. Click OK to create the database. Now, you will do some SQL scripting to create the structure and add the data.
Go to the Toolbar and click New Query. That opens up an SQLQuery window. Now, I'll return to the SQL file and once again open it in any text editor. I'm using TextPad. Now I'll select all of the code in the SQL file by pressing Ctr+A and then I'll copy all of that content to the Clipboard. Now I'll return to SQL Server Management Studio and I'll paste all that SQL into place. In the next step, I'll run the SQL file, which will result in creating all the tables and adding all of the data. I'll go to the Toolbar and click Execute. It takes less than a second for the operation to happen. Now to check the results, I'll go to the Database listing over in the Object Explorer and I'll open it up. And I'll open up the list of Tables and I should see the four tables listed that were defined in the SQL file, authors, publishers, titles and users.
Notice that all four tables have a dbo prefix. dbo is the schema or the database that owns those tables. It is possible in an SQL Server installation to have more than one table with the same name but they must be members of different schema. If you don't specify a schema in your SQL file, dbo is used automatically but you will see in my SQL file that the dbo prefix was in there. Now I'll check the structure of the data. I'll open up dbo.authors and then I'll open the Columns list. And I'll see all of the columns that were defined in the SQL file are listed there. And finally, I'll check the data. I'll right click on the table name and I'll choose Select Top 1000 Rows.
In the center of the SQL Server Management Studio interface, I'll see the resulting SQL statement that would retrieve the data. And then below that, I'll see the actual data that was retrieved in a data grid. You can also edit the data from this interface. For example, you can right click on the table and then select Edit Top 200 Rows and then you can actually go into the data and make changes and your changes will be saved right back to the Database files. So, that's a look at how to create the SQL Server Database if you have access to the Exercise Files. If you don't have access to the Exercise Files, you will need to create the tables yourself. For example, you can go to the Tables item in the Object Explorer, right click and select New Table. And if, for example, I were creating the authors table, I would type in the name of the column, au_id. I would select the Data Type, which in this case is int for integer. And then assuming that this was a primary key and an auto-incrementing or identity column, I would come up here and click Set Primary Key.
And then down here in the Column Properties, I would scroll down to the section labeled Identity Specification. I would open that up and then I would set the property Is Identity to Yes. And to create a variable character field, I would click once again into the list of columns, type in the name of the column. Select the Data Type, which will be varchar. Notice that it defaults to a size of 50. And then if I want to change the size of the column, I would go into the General properties in the Column Properties panel and change the Length, let's say, from 50 to 40.
After you have setup all of your table structure information in the grid above, you then save the table. I'll click on the Save icon in the Toolbar and notice that I'm prompted for the name of the table. I'm not going to save this new table because I already have my tables created. But again, if you don't have access to the Exercise Files, this is how you can create the tables using SQL Server Management Studio. You can then edit the tables and add your data directly through the SQL Server Management Studio interface.
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