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I want you to consider a scenario with me. Just bear with me; I think you're going to find this a really gripping tale, and it's got a really nice ending. You're in aperture priority, you're shooting with a lens that can open all the way to 2.8, you've dialed in 2.8 on your camera, which tells your camera to shoot at f/2.8, gives you super shallow depth of field, and your camera calculates a shutter speed that's appropriate for that aperture. In fact, it decides that 1/8000 of a second, its maximum shutter speed, is the only one that's fast enough to give you a good exposure at f/2.8.
Then everything is going great, and suddenly, in mid-shoot, the sun comes out from behind a cloud, and it makes your scene much brighter. But because your camera is in Aperture priority mode, the camera isn't allowed to change aperture, and it needs to cut down the light, but it's already at its fastest shutter speed. It can't do anything! Your image will be over exposed! But, if you enable the safety shift feature, then the camera is allowed to change aperture, even when you're in Aperture priority mode, and the shot is saved.
Similarly, it's allowed to change shutter speed even when you're in Shutter priority mode. When I'm in Program, Shutter, or Aperture priority mode, if the camera needs to change ISO, and I'm not in Auto ISO, it will be allowed to do so. So basically, with Safety shift, I can just give the camera a manual override capability whenever I'm in one of these modes. Most of the time, I leave this off, because it's a better idea to just be able to know what you're doing actually, and ride your exposure controls with some level of control, and make sure that you're not getting over or under exposure.
If you're in a rapidly changing situation, or a really dynamically lit situation, where it's possible for something to suddenly change brightness, like maybe a stage show or something, then Safety shift can be a real lifesaver. Now don't worry; safety shift won't be wantonly changing your aperture. The only time it will happen are on those rare occasions where you're up against the wall exposure-wise, and your current priority choice will result in an over or under exposure.
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