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What are Newton's laws of motion?

From: Creating Simulations in MassFX and 3ds Max

Video: What are Newton's laws of motion?

Knowing how objects should be moving in a given situation can go a long way towards helping us create believable dynamic simulations. This would mean having at least a basic grasp of the three laws of motion as set down by Sir Isaac Newton. According to Newton's first law, an object at rest will remain at rest unless acted on by an unbalanced or stronger force. By the same criteria, an object in motion continues in motion with the same speed and in the same direction unless, again, it is acted upon by an unbalanced force.

What are Newton's laws of motion?

Knowing how objects should be moving in a given situation can go a long way towards helping us create believable dynamic simulations. This would mean having at least a basic grasp of the three laws of motion as set down by Sir Isaac Newton. According to Newton's first law, an object at rest will remain at rest unless acted on by an unbalanced or stronger force. By the same criteria, an object in motion continues in motion with the same speed and in the same direction unless, again, it is acted upon by an unbalanced force.

This law, often cited alongside Galileo's concepts of inertia, reminds us that there is a natural tendency of objects to keep on doing what they are doing. All objects exhibit natural resistance to changes in their current state. This means in our simulations we will need to think in terms of forces, forces to start an object moving and then forces that will act upon it to either alter its cause or behavior or maybe even to slow it down, and eventually to bring it to a stop.

According to Newton's second law, acceleration is produced when an unbalanced force acts on a mass. The greater the mass of the object being accelerated, the greater the amount of force needed to accelerate it. This of course means that everyone is unconsciously aware of Newton's second law. Everyone knows that a heavier object will require more force to move as compared to a lighter one. Rather than being expressed simply as an idea or concept, this second law can provide us with an exact relationship between force, mass, and acceleration.

In other words, it can be expressed as a mathematical equation: F=M x A. Or in English, force equals mass times acceleration. Here is an example of how Newton's second law might work. Little Johnny's bicycle has a mass of 10 kg, but it has a flat tire, so he has to push it at home. The bike is pushed at 0.1 m/s2. By using Newton's second law, we can compute how much force Johnny is applying to his bicycle.

F=10x0.1 m/sec2 would give us an answer of 1 Newton, or a force of 1 Newton being applied to move the bicycle along. According to Newton's third law, for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. This means that for every force, there receives a reactionary force that is equal in size but opposite in direction. The simple push or press-up as used in physical exercise can nicely demonstrate this law for us.

The action of the upper body muscles would be to push down on the ground with a particular amount of force. The reaction is that the ground would push the body upwards with an equal force, action and then equal and opposite reaction. Now, we of course won't need to become renowned physicists in order to work with simulation tools such as MassFX, but it does become very clear that the more we understand the workings of the world around us, the more we understand why objects behave as they do, the better position we will be in to produce believable, high-quality simulations.

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Creating Simulations in MassFX and 3ds Max

51 video lessons · 2481 viewers

Brian Bradley
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  1. 3m 27s
    1. Welcome
      58s
    2. Working with the exercise files
      46s
    3. Setting up the 3ds Max project structure
      1m 43s
  2. 39m 20s
    1. Why simulate and not animate?
      3m 38s
    2. A look at gravity and drag
      3m 55s
    3. Understanding volume, mass, and density
      3m 45s
    4. What are Newton's laws of motion?
      3m 20s
    5. Finding believable frames per second and substeps
      3m 5s
    6. Understanding the difference between rigid and soft bodies
      3m 28s
    7. More about rigid body types
      3m 32s
    8. How collisions are calculated
      4m 35s
    9. Learning the difference between concave and convex meshes
      6m 24s
    10. What is a constraint and how do we use it?
      3m 38s
  3. 24m 20s
    1. A look at the MassFX and the 3ds Max user interfaces
      5m 52s
    2. Exploring the MassFX workflow
      5m 14s
    3. Discovering ground collision and gravity
      4m 49s
    4. Adjusting substeps and solver iterations
      3m 43s
    5. Using the Multi-Editor and the MassFX Visualizer
      4m 42s
  4. 44m 11s
    1. Breaking down the shot
      4m 51s
    2. Setting up the launchers
      3m 59s
    3. Setting up the drop system
      4m 30s
    4. Prepping the cans
      3m 33s
    5. Refining the simulation on the launchers
      5m 9s
    6. Refining the simulation on the colliders
      6m 5s
    7. Baking out the simulation for rendering
      5m 37s
    8. Reviewing the simulation with an animation sequence
      5m 3s
    9. Adding an animation override
      5m 24s
  5. 33m 32s
    1. Adding a rigid constraint and creating breakability
      8m 3s
    2. Creating a moving target with the Slide constraint
      4m 47s
    3. Creating springy targets with the Hinge constraint
      5m 59s
    4. Spinning targets using the Twist constraint
      4m 57s
    5. Creating crazy targets with the Ball & Socket constraint
      4m 58s
    6. Constructing a MassFX Ragdoll
      4m 48s
  6. 36m 51s
    1. Applying the mCloth modifier and pinning the hammock
      5m 55s
    2. Setting up the hammock's physical properties
      5m 39s
    3. Working with the mCloth interaction controls
      6m 14s
    4. Attaching the hammock to animated objects
      4m 5s
    5. Putting a rip in mCloth
      6m 14s
    6. Using mCloth to create a rope object
      4m 53s
    7. Creating a soft body object
      3m 51s
  7. 14m 47s
    1. Adding forces to a simulation
      5m 27s
    2. Putting forces to practical use
      5m 33s
    3. Using forces with mCloth
      3m 47s
  8. 35m 27s
    1. Walking through mParticles
      4m 38s
    2. Using fracture geometry
      6m 0s
    3. Creating breakable glue: Part 1
      4m 19s
    4. Creating breakable glue: Part 2
      5m 19s
    5. Creating a gloopy fluid: Part 1
      4m 14s
    6. Creating a gloopy fluid: Part 2
      4m 41s
    7. Adding forces to mParticles
      6m 16s
  9. 1m 5s
    1. What's next?
      1m 5s

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