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Unwrapping the elements for correct proportion

From: Creating Urban Game Environments in 3ds Max

Video: Unwrapping the elements for correct proportion

For games, we want to maximize the use of one texture on as many objects as we can, thereby referencing the texture again instead of reloading or opening a new texture, which uses more memory in the game and may cause a slowdown in frame rate. For this building, as I have the same brick on vertical elements and the modules made in previous lessons, I want to use one texture sheet. That way I get continuity in color and can adjust brick accordingly to map between different objects. The first thing I will do is assign the material to these objects, the same material I used on the verticals.

Unwrapping the elements for correct proportion

For games, we want to maximize the use of one texture on as many objects as we can, thereby referencing the texture again instead of reloading or opening a new texture, which uses more memory in the game and may cause a slowdown in frame rate. For this building, as I have the same brick on vertical elements and the modules made in previous lessons, I want to use one texture sheet. That way I get continuity in color and can adjust brick accordingly to map between different objects. The first thing I will do is assign the material to these objects, the same material I used on the verticals.

I will put it on one so we can see it clearly. We can see that the original UVs have been distorted by the modeling process, this is fine. What we want to do is under the Modifier List, add an Unwrap UVW Modifier on. With the Unwrap Modifier on, we will go into the UV Editor, flatten the faces, and then align them on the brick where we need.

With the Editor open, it's difficult to see what's going on. The first thing we'll do is under the CheckerPattern drop-down pick the texture we're actually using to display. There is our texture sheet laying on to the polygons. Now, we'll take these polygons, right-click and select Face or Vertex. Select all the polygons and under Mapping, choose Flatten. We'll flatten them at the default. 45 on the Face Angle Threshold and the Spacing .002.

All of our intersections in the mesh are at 90 degrees. So flattening like this is a great way to break objects apart and maintain the proportion of one element to the others. In the Mapping, first in the Quick Transform I will rotate these 90 degrees around their pivot. Now, I have got the brick in the right direction. I may need to force a redraw by scrubbing slightly in the view here to get the brick to lay on. I will press the Spacebar for the Selection Lock.

With the Selection Lock engaged, now I can move these elements around nicely. I will scale them and move them. The important thing here in scale is to watch the brick from the vertical element to the courses of the brick around the windows, scaling all the elements together make sure that the brick spans cleanly. As I scale them up and down, we can see the brick size changing on the object. What I will do is scale them in and switch to Move and move the elements down to match. One of the things to watch out for is continuity.

We made sure that in this module this element would line up cleanly at the bottom of the windows where there is a mortar joint. In scaling, I am going to get as close as I can. If needed, I can even move vertices ever so slightly to align so that I go from mortar joint to the bottom of a brick and the texture appears to be seamless on the next module. I will also watch out for the connection between the vertical element and the module. Do the bricks line up as well as possible or as close as somebody can see reasonably see? It looks like my brick needs to be just a touch bigger.

I will scale this out. Notice that the background color of my texture module here is the background color of the brick. So if I need to spill over slightly, as I am going to do, I will get a clean line-up. I will hold these UVs off the edges of the editor, zooming in to check and lining up as well as I can. I can always come back and adjust the mapping on one or the other, but I think I am in pretty decent shape. So we can see a little adjustment is all it takes to put it in the right place. That maybe a little extra scale.

I am going to get these as close as possible. The other thing I have as my ally in this is this will be possibly several stories up and have shadow lines obscuring that transition. I will press Spacebar to unlock the selection. Now, I can take the other texture elements, such as the side of the window here, pull them over next to the mesh or even inside the window and get them aligned, so that the brick flows cleanly around that opening.

In the interest of time, I will take the texture elements and align them and show what it looks like when I am done. As we can see both in the viewport and in the UV Editor, I have taken the sides and cleanly aligned them on top of each other, these green rectangles with their vertices highlighted. Actually four, all four vertical sides here lapping over, sharing the same UV space to economize on textures. There is simply not enough brick here to be able to see that it's really the same brick from vertical to vertical. The windows in the final won't be bricked in; they will have their own texture.

Those I can stack as well, make smaller, and place inside the openings here in the brick. I will select them, move them down and stack them on each other, place them inside the opening, and scale them down. One of the things I am doing is taking advantage of different materials to affect different sizes of UV elements. These windows are slightly smaller because they are painted wood adjacent to brick, therefore I can scale the element down without a loss of continuity, as we can see here in the view of larger and smaller bricks.

Once these window elements have their window texture, it will look fine. The same goes for the sill. We can just see it down here in brick. I will rotate down to be able to tell. This will disappear, this will be in white stone, and I will probably put a matching white up above on the header. I've still got extra texture space left over in the other window opening. I can either stack other elements in or use it for something else, like corners and stone elements in the future. I will close my editor, right-click and pick Top-Level, and assign the same material to the other objects to check for continuity, at least one or two, holding Ctrl to add to the selection, pressing M for Material, and assigning that material onto those.

What I am looking for in the unwrap as I press F4 and turn off Edged Faces is any gap in continuity. I have a small one right here at the top where I need to scale these elements ever so slightly to fix it. In the interest of time, I will scale and fix the texture elements and show the result when I am done. I've fixed that minor issue in the editor by moving the vertices ever so slightly to make sure that the brick lines up from top to bottom of the module. Right here in these bricks is where the sill will go and texture, further reinforcing the illusion. We're only leaving a few bricks adjacent to each other, covering anymore minor issues.

In this movie, we looked very closely at unwrapping techniques: using a texture sheet and matching the polygons to them versus unwrapping things and figuring out how to put the texture on. This technique of making a texture sheet first and aligning elements on them is very powerful when you use it on things that need to line up, like brick. We've also looked at stretching vertical elements along a building to economize on polygon usage, making sure that they are as slim as possible while still maintaining the shadow lines, and then mapping them using Rotated and Scaled mapping to get a tiling texture to repeat all the way up.

You can use this technique or both techniques on one object with one texture, to get one material to do multiple things on one building and look like, well, of course the building it's supposed to look like.

Show transcript

This video is part of

Image for Creating Urban Game Environments in 3ds Max
Creating Urban Game Environments in 3ds Max

78 video lessons · 6280 viewers

Adam Crespi
Author

 
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  1. 4m 47s
    1. Welcome
      55s
    2. Understanding the design process
      47s
    3. What you should know before watching this course
      14s
    4. Software requirements
      47s
    5. Using the exercise files
      2m 4s
  2. 14m 36s
    1. Identifying key contours and shadows in concept art
      1m 59s
    2. Analyzing concept art for texture
      2m 28s
    3. Choosing between modeling and texturing
      1m 43s
    4. Understanding the limitations of normal maps
      2m 26s
    5. Analyzing concept art for key shadow details
      3m 10s
    6. Identifying shadow details as generated or painted
      2m 50s
  3. 44m 57s
    1. Planning the visible overlaid history in a city
      3m 6s
    2. Planning a "wedding cake" building: Base, middle, and top
      2m 50s
    3. Planning a modern building: Base and shaft
      3m 1s
    4. Designing the zoning: Planning the visible uses of buildings
      6m 43s
    5. Laying out city blocks
      2m 36s
    6. Planning modular textures and geometry: Streets and sidewalks
      4m 1s
    7. Texturing intersections
      3m 13s
    8. Modeling modular curbs, gutters, and ramps
      5m 7s
    9. Modeling modular street elements
      3m 14s
    10. Modeling corners with ramps
      5m 56s
    11. Unwrapping sidewalk elements
      5m 10s
  4. 38m 9s
    1. Laying out rectangles and planning how to clone geometry and texture
      4m 59s
    2. Using layers to organize construction elements and actual models
      3m 51s
    3. Extruding edges to form major shadow lines
      5m 17s
    4. Testing the module for correct floor-to-floor heights
      1m 41s
    5. Trimming down the module and cloning
      4m 10s
    6. Stretching the vertical elements to minimize geometry
      7m 10s
    7. Unwrapping the elements for correct proportion
      7m 48s
    8. Laying out a texture sheet for a façade
      3m 13s
  5. 39m 50s
    1. Making brick texture
      6m 23s
    2. Adding detail to the diffuse texture: Sills and arches
      4m 24s
    3. Adding stone accents
      7m 47s
    4. Layering color in window frames and doorways
      8m 39s
    5. Copying diffuse layers for normal map foundations
      2m 7s
    6. Desaturating the diffuse map copies and prepping for normal maps
      3m 42s
    7. Converting bump maps to normal maps using nDO
      6m 48s
  6. 1h 2m
    1. Analyzing the necessary silhouette and geometry
      5m 24s
    2. Examining existing buildings in different lighting conditions
      3m 8s
    3. Planning cornice elements
      3m 32s
    4. Extruding cornice elements from polygon edges
      9m 12s
    5. Assigning smoothing groups for optimal shading
      4m 31s
    6. Unwrapping cornices for lighting
      8m 43s
    7. Modeling sloped roofs
      7m 16s
    8. Adding fascias and soffits
      5m 21s
    9. Adding fascias and soffits for gable ends
      7m 31s
    10. Texture sheets for roofs
      8m 1s
  7. 13m 55s
    1. Arranging, aligning, and cloning modular elements
      3m 26s
    2. Setting pivot points for buildings
      5m 48s
    3. Reusing elements: Exploring possibilities in modular building design
      4m 41s
  8. 40m 3s
    1. Creating a texture library
      36s
    2. Creating rusty corrugated metal texture
      7m 53s
    3. Creating stone texture
      4m 42s
    4. Creating wood texture
      9m 50s
    5. Creating rough brick texture
      7m 44s
    6. Creating roads
      9m 18s
  9. 38m 44s
    1. Using the Walkthrough Assistant to assess texture needs
      4m 46s
    2. Drawing detail at the right size
      3m 30s
    3. Understanding tiling and non-tiling textures
      2m 57s
    4. Deciding when to use tiling and non-tiling textures
      3m 2s
    5. Using multiple mapping coordinates
      4m 3s
    6. Using multiple unwrap modifiers
      6m 47s
    7. Unwrapping objects a second time: Planning an unwrap for a light map
      7m 46s
    8. Unwrapping a building façade using overlapping texture elements
      5m 53s
  10. 30m 25s
    1. Understanding ambient occlusion
      1m 50s
    2. Assessing the quality of occlusion as a cinematic mood
      2m 48s
    3. Overview of the Ambient Occlusion shader
      5m 9s
    4. Baking maps using the Render To Texture dialog
      3m 15s
    5. Using occlusion as a foundation for dirt
      5m 28s
    6. Using occlusion from detailed models for texture
      5m 54s
    7. Baking lighting
      6m 1s
  11. 25m 18s
    1. Preparing for Unity as a world builder
      2m 26s
    2. Importing into Unity and recognizing limitations
      4m 12s
    3. Importing elements with detailed materials
      5m 59s
    4. Setting optimal texture sizes and resizing in Unity
      3m 12s
    5. Setting up a naming convention and scene management
      7m 40s
    6. Renaming tools in 3ds Max
      1m 49s
  12. 1m 21s
    1. What's next
      1m 21s

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