Easy-to-follow video tutorials help you learn software, creative, and business skills.Become a member

Unwrapping a building façade using overlapping texture elements

From: Creating Urban Game Environments in 3ds Max

Video: Unwrapping a building façade using overlapping texture elements

Part of unwrapping an object is actually stitching the object back together. We are taking an object that is a 3D object and we're flattening it so that a 2D texture can wrap around it correctly. That's the idea of unwrapping. What I will show here is how to take pieces and stitch them together in an economical way to best use up the texture space. I have the warehouse from the previous exercises and as we can see by the map seams evident, the large faces are mapped on their own and the small sides are all split apart, as are the window polygons and the doors.

Unwrapping a building façade using overlapping texture elements

Part of unwrapping an object is actually stitching the object back together. We are taking an object that is a 3D object and we're flattening it so that a 2D texture can wrap around it correctly. That's the idea of unwrapping. What I will show here is how to take pieces and stitch them together in an economical way to best use up the texture space. I have the warehouse from the previous exercises and as we can see by the map seams evident, the large faces are mapped on their own and the small sides are all split apart, as are the window polygons and the doors.

Because this will be used for a dirt map or occlusion map, I would like to have some continuity in my textures, where the same dirt can be painted on the bottom or the windowsill, the bottom of the window, and on the side. I will open up the UV Editor, and in here start to stitch together my elements. What I had done for convenience and so I could tell where they were, is to start to stack my window pieces. I'll pick one and pull it to the side and then zoom in on it. Whenever we select a face or an edge in the UV Editor, 3ds Max will show us the adjacent pieces.

This particular window I have has these adjacent faces shown in blue. What I'll do as an example is take these pieces and pull them into place. What I can see as I select this bottom is that it's adjacent to that blue edge. I will pull it over into the right place. I'll pick the next piece and move it in. I will get them fairly close, selecting parts here. Putting them in one place and finding the last one,. There it is, stuck out there.

Once I have the five components of the window and its sides, I can start to rotate and put these into the right place. I will select one of the side faces and look at the adjacent edge highlighted in blue. When I picked the window face, I'll make a mental note of which edge on the side is highlighted as well. This tells me which way to rotate it. It looks like I need to flip a few of these around. I will start with the side and I'll use the Rotate -90 around the Pivot button, In flipping this when I toggle back and forth, I can see that the blue edges are adjacent to each other correctly.

I'll move this into the right place and continue flipping. Picking the window and it looks like the header needs to flip around as well. Once, twice and the 90 gives me 180 degrees. I will move it nice and close and look at the last one. It looks like this one needs to flip 90 degrees. Now all of my elements are flipped in the right place. What I would like to do here, is get them as close as possible and then start sewing edges.

We do have some snap tools available in the Unwrap dialog. Sometimes I use these and sometimes I like to do it manually. In this case, I am going to go manual. I will pull these in as close as possible, then right-click and switch to Edge. Alternately we can work by face. It's important to note where that blue edge is. Working by face I am going to look in the Stitch rollout. We have some options here in how we are stitching: whether we are working to the Target, whether we are stitching to a center or Average, or stitching to the Source.

I am going to stitch to the Target in this case. What that does is stitches the whole piece in. Sometimes we get a fairly odd result when I have adjacent edges like this. In this case, this is a place to switch to edge instead of face. I will right-click and choose Edge. Now when I select an edge its counterpart is highlighted in blue. I'll use the Stitch To Target button and stitch them together. I do have a little bit of weave here but I can fix that. Really the nice part is that I have an interior scene that if I paint a texture on the window, it will clearly and cleanly lap onto the sill.

I'll finish this process on the window. Zooming in and picking an edge, making sure I am being consistent in which way I'm going. For me in this case, I want to stitch from the side, top and bottom, onto the window face. I will click on Stitch To Target and proceed around the window. Now my UV element is stitched together, and I am ready to do some aligning in the vertices. For these vertices, I'll select them all in a line and then use the Align Vertical button to get them together.

I'll repeat this all the way around, Aligning these as well as possible. For the top and sides I will use the Align Horizontal button. Now my element is continuous. I'll have to deal with the texture span right here at the corner. We have to make some allowances in texture for things like that. But I have the most continuity in this element, from face to side, top, and bottom across the longest edge. This is an important principle in Unwrapping. This way when I paint a texture such as dirt or overlay Ambient Occlusion as a light map, I can have as much continuity in my pieces as possible.

What I would do on the rest of this building is to finish stitching the windows and doors and their component sides and tops and bottoms. That way instead of a spread of elements all through here, I have a stack of elements, one for the doors and one for the windows. I can then take those and fill this UV space as big as possible. Although it may sound odd, my door and window elements will occupy as much space as the wall, and the reasoning behind that is because I stand to get close to them.

In fact, as we saw in the Walkthrough Assistant video, I could stand right here in the doorway and peek around the corner, looking right at the dirt and occlusion I'm going to put over.

Show transcript

This video is part of

Image for Creating Urban Game Environments in 3ds Max
Creating Urban Game Environments in 3ds Max

78 video lessons · 6207 viewers

Adam Crespi
Author

 
Expand all | Collapse all
  1. 4m 47s
    1. Welcome
      55s
    2. Understanding the design process
      47s
    3. What you should know before watching this course
      14s
    4. Software requirements
      47s
    5. Using the exercise files
      2m 4s
  2. 14m 36s
    1. Identifying key contours and shadows in concept art
      1m 59s
    2. Analyzing concept art for texture
      2m 28s
    3. Choosing between modeling and texturing
      1m 43s
    4. Understanding the limitations of normal maps
      2m 26s
    5. Analyzing concept art for key shadow details
      3m 10s
    6. Identifying shadow details as generated or painted
      2m 50s
  3. 44m 57s
    1. Planning the visible overlaid history in a city
      3m 6s
    2. Planning a "wedding cake" building: Base, middle, and top
      2m 50s
    3. Planning a modern building: Base and shaft
      3m 1s
    4. Designing the zoning: Planning the visible uses of buildings
      6m 43s
    5. Laying out city blocks
      2m 36s
    6. Planning modular textures and geometry: Streets and sidewalks
      4m 1s
    7. Texturing intersections
      3m 13s
    8. Modeling modular curbs, gutters, and ramps
      5m 7s
    9. Modeling modular street elements
      3m 14s
    10. Modeling corners with ramps
      5m 56s
    11. Unwrapping sidewalk elements
      5m 10s
  4. 38m 9s
    1. Laying out rectangles and planning how to clone geometry and texture
      4m 59s
    2. Using layers to organize construction elements and actual models
      3m 51s
    3. Extruding edges to form major shadow lines
      5m 17s
    4. Testing the module for correct floor-to-floor heights
      1m 41s
    5. Trimming down the module and cloning
      4m 10s
    6. Stretching the vertical elements to minimize geometry
      7m 10s
    7. Unwrapping the elements for correct proportion
      7m 48s
    8. Laying out a texture sheet for a façade
      3m 13s
  5. 39m 50s
    1. Making brick texture
      6m 23s
    2. Adding detail to the diffuse texture: Sills and arches
      4m 24s
    3. Adding stone accents
      7m 47s
    4. Layering color in window frames and doorways
      8m 39s
    5. Copying diffuse layers for normal map foundations
      2m 7s
    6. Desaturating the diffuse map copies and prepping for normal maps
      3m 42s
    7. Converting bump maps to normal maps using nDO
      6m 48s
  6. 1h 2m
    1. Analyzing the necessary silhouette and geometry
      5m 24s
    2. Examining existing buildings in different lighting conditions
      3m 8s
    3. Planning cornice elements
      3m 32s
    4. Extruding cornice elements from polygon edges
      9m 12s
    5. Assigning smoothing groups for optimal shading
      4m 31s
    6. Unwrapping cornices for lighting
      8m 43s
    7. Modeling sloped roofs
      7m 16s
    8. Adding fascias and soffits
      5m 21s
    9. Adding fascias and soffits for gable ends
      7m 31s
    10. Texture sheets for roofs
      8m 1s
  7. 13m 55s
    1. Arranging, aligning, and cloning modular elements
      3m 26s
    2. Setting pivot points for buildings
      5m 48s
    3. Reusing elements: Exploring possibilities in modular building design
      4m 41s
  8. 40m 3s
    1. Creating a texture library
      36s
    2. Creating rusty corrugated metal texture
      7m 53s
    3. Creating stone texture
      4m 42s
    4. Creating wood texture
      9m 50s
    5. Creating rough brick texture
      7m 44s
    6. Creating roads
      9m 18s
  9. 38m 44s
    1. Using the Walkthrough Assistant to assess texture needs
      4m 46s
    2. Drawing detail at the right size
      3m 30s
    3. Understanding tiling and non-tiling textures
      2m 57s
    4. Deciding when to use tiling and non-tiling textures
      3m 2s
    5. Using multiple mapping coordinates
      4m 3s
    6. Using multiple unwrap modifiers
      6m 47s
    7. Unwrapping objects a second time: Planning an unwrap for a light map
      7m 46s
    8. Unwrapping a building façade using overlapping texture elements
      5m 53s
  10. 30m 25s
    1. Understanding ambient occlusion
      1m 50s
    2. Assessing the quality of occlusion as a cinematic mood
      2m 48s
    3. Overview of the Ambient Occlusion shader
      5m 9s
    4. Baking maps using the Render To Texture dialog
      3m 15s
    5. Using occlusion as a foundation for dirt
      5m 28s
    6. Using occlusion from detailed models for texture
      5m 54s
    7. Baking lighting
      6m 1s
  11. 25m 18s
    1. Preparing for Unity as a world builder
      2m 26s
    2. Importing into Unity and recognizing limitations
      4m 12s
    3. Importing elements with detailed materials
      5m 59s
    4. Setting optimal texture sizes and resizing in Unity
      3m 12s
    5. Setting up a naming convention and scene management
      7m 40s
    6. Renaming tools in 3ds Max
      1m 49s
  12. 1m 21s
    1. What's next
      1m 21s

Start learning today

Get unlimited access to all courses for just $25/month.

Become a member
Sometimes @lynda teaches me how to use a program and sometimes Lynda.com changes my life forever. @JosefShutter
@lynda lynda.com is an absolute life saver when it comes to learning todays software. Definitely recommend it! #higherlearning @Michael_Caraway
@lynda The best thing online! Your database of courses is great! To the mark and very helpful. Thanks! @ru22more
Got to create something yesterday I never thought I could do. #thanks @lynda @Ngventurella
I really do love @lynda as a learning platform. Never stop learning and developing, it’s probably our greatest gift as a species! @soundslikedavid
@lynda just subscribed to lynda.com all I can say its brilliant join now trust me @ButchSamurai
@lynda is an awesome resource. The membership is priceless if you take advantage of it. @diabetic_techie
One of the best decision I made this year. Buy a 1yr subscription to @lynda @cybercaptive
guys lynda.com (@lynda) is the best. So far I’ve learned Java, principles of OO programming, and now learning about MS project @lucasmitchell
Signed back up to @lynda dot com. I’ve missed it!! Proper geeking out right now! #timetolearn #geek @JayGodbold
Share a link to this course

What are exercise files?

Exercise files are the same files the author uses in the course. Save time by downloading the author's files instead of setting up your own files, and learn by following along with the instructor.

Can I take this course without the exercise files?

Yes! If you decide you would like the exercise files later, you can upgrade to a premium account any time.

Become a member Download sample files See plans and pricing

Please wait... please wait ...
Upgrade to get access to exercise files.

Exercise files video

How to use exercise files.

Learn by watching, listening, and doing, Exercise files are the same files the author uses in the course, so you can download them and follow along Premium memberships include access to all exercise files in the library.


Exercise files

Exercise files video

How to use exercise files.

For additional information on downloading and using exercise files, watch our instructional video or read the instructions in the FAQ.

This course includes free exercise files, so you can practice while you watch the course. To access all the exercise files in our library, become a Premium Member.

Are you sure you want to mark all the videos in this course as unwatched?

This will not affect your course history, your reports, or your certificates of completion for this course.


Mark all as unwatched Cancel

Congratulations

You have completed Creating Urban Game Environments in 3ds Max.

Return to your organization's learning portal to continue training, or close this page.


OK
Become a member to add this course to a playlist

Join today and get unlimited access to the entire library of video courses—and create as many playlists as you like.

Get started

Already a member?

Become a member to like this course.

Join today and get unlimited access to the entire library of video courses.

Get started

Already a member?

Exercise files

Learn by watching, listening, and doing! Exercise files are the same files the author uses in the course, so you can download them and follow along. Exercise files are available with all Premium memberships. Learn more

Get started

Already a Premium member?

Exercise files video

How to use exercise files.

Ask a question

Thanks for contacting us.
You’ll hear from our Customer Service team within 24 hours.

Please enter the text shown below:

The classic layout automatically defaults to the latest Flash Player.

To choose a different player, hold the cursor over your name at the top right of any lynda.com page and choose Site preferencesfrom the dropdown menu.

Continue to classic layout Stay on new layout
Exercise files

Access exercise files from a button right under the course name.

Mark videos as unwatched

Remove icons showing you already watched videos if you want to start over.

Control your viewing experience

Make the video wide, narrow, full-screen, or pop the player out of the page into its own window.

Interactive transcripts

Click on text in the transcript to jump to that spot in the video. As the video plays, the relevant spot in the transcript will be highlighted.

Are you sure you want to delete this note?

No

Your file was successfully uploaded.

Thanks for signing up.

We’ll send you a confirmation email shortly.


Sign up and receive emails about lynda.com and our online training library:

Here’s our privacy policy with more details about how we handle your information.

Keep up with news, tips, and latest courses with emails from lynda.com.

Sign up and receive emails about lynda.com and our online training library:

Here’s our privacy policy with more details about how we handle your information.

   
submit Lightbox submit clicked
Terms and conditions of use

We've updated our terms and conditions (now called terms of service).Go
Review and accept our updated terms of service.