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Creating Urban Game Environments in 3ds Max
Illustration by Mark Todd

Texture sheets for roofs


From:

Creating Urban Game Environments in 3ds Max

with Adam Crespi

Video: Texture sheets for roofs

Once we have the geometry of a roof done, it's time to think about the texture. The important thing on a roof, as I've said in previous lessons, is that it's going to occupy a lot of the view. That visually, as we examine this little house we'll call it, roughly two-thirds of what we are seeing is house and a third of what we're seeing of this is the roof. If we stand down even more on street level, we still see an enormous amount of roof surface. So we want to think carefully about the textures that are going on there. As an example of this, I've made up a texture sheet of a corrugated metal roof.
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  1. 4m 47s
    1. Welcome
      55s
    2. Understanding the design process
      47s
    3. What you should know before watching this course
      14s
    4. Software requirements
      47s
    5. Using the exercise files
      2m 4s
  2. 14m 36s
    1. Identifying key contours and shadows in concept art
      1m 59s
    2. Analyzing concept art for texture
      2m 28s
    3. Choosing between modeling and texturing
      1m 43s
    4. Understanding the limitations of normal maps
      2m 26s
    5. Analyzing concept art for key shadow details
      3m 10s
    6. Identifying shadow details as generated or painted
      2m 50s
  3. 44m 57s
    1. Planning the visible overlaid history in a city
      3m 6s
    2. Planning a "wedding cake" building: Base, middle, and top
      2m 50s
    3. Planning a modern building: Base and shaft
      3m 1s
    4. Designing the zoning: Planning the visible uses of buildings
      6m 43s
    5. Laying out city blocks
      2m 36s
    6. Planning modular textures and geometry: Streets and sidewalks
      4m 1s
    7. Texturing intersections
      3m 13s
    8. Modeling modular curbs, gutters, and ramps
      5m 7s
    9. Modeling modular street elements
      3m 14s
    10. Modeling corners with ramps
      5m 56s
    11. Unwrapping sidewalk elements
      5m 10s
  4. 38m 9s
    1. Laying out rectangles and planning how to clone geometry and texture
      4m 59s
    2. Using layers to organize construction elements and actual models
      3m 51s
    3. Extruding edges to form major shadow lines
      5m 17s
    4. Testing the module for correct floor-to-floor heights
      1m 41s
    5. Trimming down the module and cloning
      4m 10s
    6. Stretching the vertical elements to minimize geometry
      7m 10s
    7. Unwrapping the elements for correct proportion
      7m 48s
    8. Laying out a texture sheet for a façade
      3m 13s
  5. 39m 50s
    1. Making brick texture
      6m 23s
    2. Adding detail to the diffuse texture: Sills and arches
      4m 24s
    3. Adding stone accents
      7m 47s
    4. Layering color in window frames and doorways
      8m 39s
    5. Copying diffuse layers for normal map foundations
      2m 7s
    6. Desaturating the diffuse map copies and prepping for normal maps
      3m 42s
    7. Converting bump maps to normal maps using nDO
      6m 48s
  6. 1h 2m
    1. Analyzing the necessary silhouette and geometry
      5m 24s
    2. Examining existing buildings in different lighting conditions
      3m 8s
    3. Planning cornice elements
      3m 32s
    4. Extruding cornice elements from polygon edges
      9m 12s
    5. Assigning smoothing groups for optimal shading
      4m 31s
    6. Unwrapping cornices for lighting
      8m 43s
    7. Modeling sloped roofs
      7m 16s
    8. Adding fascias and soffits
      5m 21s
    9. Adding fascias and soffits for gable ends
      7m 31s
    10. Texture sheets for roofs
      8m 1s
  7. 13m 55s
    1. Arranging, aligning, and cloning modular elements
      3m 26s
    2. Setting pivot points for buildings
      5m 48s
    3. Reusing elements: Exploring possibilities in modular building design
      4m 41s
  8. 40m 3s
    1. Creating a texture library
      36s
    2. Creating rusty corrugated metal texture
      7m 53s
    3. Creating stone texture
      4m 42s
    4. Creating wood texture
      9m 50s
    5. Creating rough brick texture
      7m 44s
    6. Creating roads
      9m 18s
  9. 38m 44s
    1. Using the Walkthrough Assistant to assess texture needs
      4m 46s
    2. Drawing detail at the right size
      3m 30s
    3. Understanding tiling and non-tiling textures
      2m 57s
    4. Deciding when to use tiling and non-tiling textures
      3m 2s
    5. Using multiple mapping coordinates
      4m 3s
    6. Using multiple unwrap modifiers
      6m 47s
    7. Unwrapping objects a second time: Planning an unwrap for a light map
      7m 46s
    8. Unwrapping a building façade using overlapping texture elements
      5m 53s
  10. 30m 25s
    1. Understanding ambient occlusion
      1m 50s
    2. Assessing the quality of occlusion as a cinematic mood
      2m 48s
    3. Overview of the Ambient Occlusion shader
      5m 9s
    4. Baking maps using the Render To Texture dialog
      3m 15s
    5. Using occlusion as a foundation for dirt
      5m 28s
    6. Using occlusion from detailed models for texture
      5m 54s
    7. Baking lighting
      6m 1s
  11. 25m 18s
    1. Preparing for Unity as a world builder
      2m 26s
    2. Importing into Unity and recognizing limitations
      4m 12s
    3. Importing elements with detailed materials
      5m 59s
    4. Setting optimal texture sizes and resizing in Unity
      3m 12s
    5. Setting up a naming convention and scene management
      7m 40s
    6. Renaming tools in 3ds Max
      1m 49s
  12. 1m 21s
    1. What's next
      1m 21s

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Creating Urban Game Environments in 3ds Max
5h 54m Intermediate Sep 07, 2011

Viewers: in countries Watching now:

Follow a practical guide to building 3D cityscapes for games. IAuthor Adam Crespi constructs a city block in 3ds Max utilizing low-polygon modeling and advanced texturing techniques. The course shows how to model common city elements such as buildings, intersections, curbs, and roofs and explains how to expand a city quickly and easily by reusing existing geometry in a modular way. The course also sheds light on simulating real-world detail with baking, lighting, and ambient occlusion techniques and offers a series of best practices for exporting to the Unity gaming engine.

Topics include:
  • Understanding the design process and software requirements
  • Analyzing concept art for texture and key shadow detail
  • Planning differently styled buildings
  • Laying out city blocks
  • Organizing construction elements and models using layers
  • Cloning geometry and texture
  • Testing the module for correct floor-to-floor heights
  • Arranging, aligning and cloning modular elements
  • Building a texture library
  • Creating stone, wood, and brick textures
  • Constructing texture sheets
  • Drawing detail
  • Using occlusion as a foundation for dirt
  • Preparing for Unity as a world builder
Subjects:
3D + Animation Modeling Rendering Game Design
Software:
3ds Max
Author:
Adam Crespi

Texture sheets for roofs

Once we have the geometry of a roof done, it's time to think about the texture. The important thing on a roof, as I've said in previous lessons, is that it's going to occupy a lot of the view. That visually, as we examine this little house we'll call it, roughly two-thirds of what we are seeing is house and a third of what we're seeing of this is the roof. If we stand down even more on street level, we still see an enormous amount of roof surface. So we want to think carefully about the textures that are going on there. As an example of this, I've made up a texture sheet of a corrugated metal roof.

The big deal with a roof is we can map it plane by plane and it becomes very easy. Here's the texture sheet. Right now this is 1024 square, although we can always reduce it in size if needed. It's got a Color group organized by a layer as usual with corrugation, rust, splotches, and up at the top, siding turned across. This will be the ridge. The big deal in the roof is that we have special conditions at the ridge or the top of the roof and usually the same kind of sheathing all the way down. We'll handle things like the fascia and the soffit probably as part of the building texture of a sheet because they have more like materials.

In this case, this is for the roof only. So I can reuse it in a number places if I need. As an example, I may be dealing in a number of dwellings that have corrugated metal roofs that can share a texture. In the Bump group on this, I've got the raw corrugations, I've taken out the rust, and I've added in the screw heads, which are really very, very tiny little dots with a little bit of white in the middle. They will be close enough. I can convert this to a normal map if needed. What I'll do is I'll save out this image, at least the color so we can tell how it maps on.

Over here in 3ds Max, I've saved out those textures from Photoshop, running the Bump group through nDo to produce a normal map as well. Now I'll add this on as a material so I can see it mapped on the roof. I'll press M for the Material Editor and make a new material. In this case, I will put in the Diffuse slot my color, choosing under standard maps a bitmap, and picking metal roofC. I'll go up to the Parent and show this in the view.

I'll call this metal roof rusty and select the roof and assign it. At the moment, we can't really see much. There aren't mapping coordinates on it. So we need to map it. I can come back later and add the normal map to this. I'm going to map this in the top view and I'll right-click and choose Hide Unselected just so I don't grab anything accidentally. The way to map this roof is by polygon.

I'll select a polygon, let's say this one first, and under the Modifier List add a UVW map on. The big deal is to make the map size exactly to fit this distance, from ridge down to eave, which I know is 96. I can measure it if needed, remember, using a poly plane, quickly snapping it in place. The length and width of my poly plane are 96x96. That's going to give me my map size. Back here to the roof with my polygon selected, I can apply my UVW map.

In that mapping, I'll set the Length and Width to 96.0x96.0 and then rotate it around in the right direction. For mapping this roof as I spin around here I want make sure that the ridge is up at the top. So I'll spin this mapping around by right-clicking and choosing Gizmo and rotating on the Z axis. That's pretty good although it's not quite aligned. We can see it's sort of sticking through. In the UVW map, we want to scroll down and try a different way of aligning.

In the Alignment, I'll use the Normal Align, clicking on it and then selecting that polygon. This lets me align that Gizmo very cleanly on that roof, making sure it's snapped in the right place. We can see I may need to scale this up slightly as that distance is slightly longer than my 96. You have some options in here. You can do it this way, scaling up that gizmo to match, or map it flat down. This is really up to you how you would like it to be.

I'm going to take the more exact approach and scale this up a bit. I'll try a Length of 110.0 and a Width of 110.0 as well. And that seems to fit pretty nicely. I'll remember that for future use. As we can see in my texture here, as I spin around to see it better, the rust is tiling. It repeats cleanly with some streaking in here. In a metal roof like this, it's okay to see streaking as it is part of the way these rust.

If I needed to clean this up, my PSD is layered in Photoshop for just such an occurrence, making it very easy to come back and repaint the rust so it works nicely. Now I'm going to continue to map the rest of these. In the interest of time, I'll come back to the completed version with all the polygons of the roof mapped in the same way. I've used the mapping on this roof in every different direction, simply selecting polygons by their direction in the roof and applying a UVW map. As you can see here in the Modifier stack, I've used a Poly Select modifier to jump between different polygons.

Now if I need I can collapse this whole stack back to an Editable Poly and the object will still have mapping coordinates. I'll convert it to an Editable Poly by right-clicking and choosing Convert to an Editable Poly, deleting the history or optimizing the object. I want to make sure that my mapping looks right before I do this. I can always come back and repaint the texture if needed, but I think it looks pretty good. I have a rusty metal roof on my building. The last step then is I'm going to add in the normal map and see if this behaves correctly in terms of the way it lights.

I've put in a directional light in the scene to help me with that. I'll unhide everything. I'll press M for Material Editor and scroll down to the Maps rollout. In the Bump slot, I'll add in a Normal Bump. In the Normal Bump under the Normal, I'll click on the None slot and choose Bitmap. And finally, I'll pick the metal roofN for Normal. This should work fairly nicely. If this doesn't show as well as it needs to, I can always add another light in.

I think for now what I will do is make sure that my shading or my lighting and shadows illuminate with the default lights instead of the scene lights. And I should get a better look on it. I'll also make sure that under Materials, I am using Realistic Materials with Maps. And I start to see my ridges, my corrugation pop out very nicely. In the Material, I can always increase the Normal strength or increase the Bump strength from the default of 30. As a final note, I design my bumps to run at a strength of 1.

Many game engines only run a bump at full strength. There is not a question of how much. It's just is there one or not. So I design it to run so at a strength of 100 here in Max, it looks pretty good. It looks like a rusty corrugated metal roof on a building. For your roofs then, think about the amount of room you're dealing with. You're dealing with a roof that quite possibly is a third of the amount of building you are going to see. And we might be seeing it from fairly close and able to pick out detail.

We also want to think about carefully how a roof wears and accumulates things like dust and dirt. Different kinds of roofs are going to have different materials applied, which we can paint in Photoshop easily using an organized layered workflow.

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