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Modeling a Character in 3ds Max
Illustration by John Hersey

Exploring edge flow


From:

Modeling a Character in 3ds Max

with Ryan Kittleson

Video: Exploring edge flow

The structure of your polygonal mesh can be thought of like the structure of a bridge or tower. In both cases you want to get the most use out of the fewest pieces. The arrangement of the polygons in a model, like the arrangement of beams in a tower, needs to relate to the shapes and forms that they're contributing to. The way in which edges relate to anatomy and to each other is called edge flow, and it's a crucial concept for making characters that bend and move in correct ways. So I'm just showing this image of the Eiffel Tower to illustrate the point that these different struts aren't just positioned at random angles.
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  1. 7m 36s
    1. Welcome
      1m 2s
    2. What you need to know before watching this course
      52s
    3. Overview of the design process
      3m 26s
    4. Using the exercise files
      2m 16s
  2. 40m 7s
    1. Extruding edges and faces
      7m 42s
    2. Using Paint Deform
      8m 58s
    3. Working symmetrically
      5m 32s
    4. Using TurboSmooth
      4m 39s
    5. Setting up the image planes
      8m 28s
    6. Exploring edge flow
      4m 48s
  3. 1h 15m
    1. Creating the basic facial structure
      5m 26s
    2. Creating the basic facial features
      8m 51s
    3. Making the head and neck
      7m 55s
    4. Refining the mouth
      11m 24s
    5. Shaping the eyes
      10m 53s
    6. Building the nose
      6m 45s
    7. Crafting the ears
      6m 9s
    8. Making the teeth and gums
      10m 4s
    9. Modeling the tongue and eyebrows
      7m 43s
  4. 44m 38s
    1. Modeling the upper body
      9m 45s
    2. Building the hips, legs, and feet
      5m 8s
    3. Constructing the palm and thumb
      7m 14s
    4. Making fingers and finishing the hand
      7m 53s
    5. Fleshing out the body
      9m 22s
    6. Attaching body parts with different numbers of edges
      5m 16s
  5. 13m 39s
    1. Drawing the NURBS curves for hair
      4m 11s
    2. Sweeping the NURBS curves into polygon objects
      3m 32s
    3. Sculpting the polygon hair clumps
      5m 56s
  6. 49m 54s
    1. Modeling the pants
      7m 16s
    2. Making wrinkles in the pants
      9m 0s
    3. Modeling the belt
      5m 30s
    4. Making the belt loops
      6m 35s
    5. Creating the shirt
      9m 33s
    6. Making the shoes
      12m 0s
  7. 12m 7s
    1. Putting on the finishing touches
      6m 7s
    2. Thinking about artistic appeal
      3m 59s
    3. Recapping the most important concepts
      2m 1s
  8. 27m 24s
    1. Understanding UVW maps and seams
      6m 28s
    2. Using Peel to flatten the UVW maps
      3m 50s
    3. Dealing with UVW maps across multiple objects
      10m 5s
    4. Refining the UVW layout
      7m 1s
  9. 51s
    1. What's next
      51s

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Modeling a Character in 3ds Max
4h 31m Intermediate Aug 30, 2011

Viewers: in countries Watching now:

Modeling a Character in 3ds Max with Ryan Kittleson covers the process of designing and building a 3D human character that can be used for feature film, broadcast, and games. The course begins with an overview of the 3ds Max tools and techniques used in character modeling, and how human anatomy is represented using 3D geometry. Once this foundation is in place, the rest of the course goes step by step through the actual process used to model a simple human character from the ground up, including facial features, musculature, and details such as hair and clothing.

Topics include:
  • Extruding edges and faces
  • Working symmetrically
  • Setting up the image planes
  • Creating the basic facial structure and features
  • Modeling and fleshing out the body
  • Creating the hair with extruded NURBS curves
  • Modeling clothes
  • Putting on finishing touches
  • Understanding UVW maps and seams
  • Dealing with UVW maps across multiple objects
Subjects:
3D + Animation Modeling Character Animation
Software:
3ds Max
Author:
Ryan Kittleson

Exploring edge flow

The structure of your polygonal mesh can be thought of like the structure of a bridge or tower. In both cases you want to get the most use out of the fewest pieces. The arrangement of the polygons in a model, like the arrangement of beams in a tower, needs to relate to the shapes and forms that they're contributing to. The way in which edges relate to anatomy and to each other is called edge flow, and it's a crucial concept for making characters that bend and move in correct ways. So I'm just showing this image of the Eiffel Tower to illustrate the point that these different struts aren't just positioned at random angles.

They're positioned in such a way that they relate to the overall shapes that the architect had in mind when he designed the Eiffel Tower. So how do we know where our edge flow should go? In 3D character animation modelers and riggers use a principle called edge flow to determine what the polygonal structure of a model should look like. Edge flow is a way of relating the topology to the anatomy. In this exercise file, I have color coded different parts of the body according to their flow zones. That's the term I just made up. It sounds fun to say.

Flow zones are sections of a model that all have the same edge-flow pattern. I'm going to go over some of the things to take into consideration when planning out flow zones for a character. Look for where creases form. Look for lines and edges in the model. When the model animates, having the edge flow follow creases will help maintain their shape. So let's look at Hank here. I'm going to zoom in at his shoulders and his pec region, and we've got edges that are following right here underneath the pectoral muscles and going up, following this crease that goes up to the shoulder.

If the polygon edges went against the grain of the anatomy, it would be very difficult to animate, let alone model correctly. Another thing to take into consideration is the directional movement of flesh and muscle. When the body moves the skin pulls in various directions. Understanding what direction the skin moves in will help you place edge flow. Let's zoom in on the face. Notice the eyes and mouth. The skin is going to need to stretch and deform in certain directions to make smiles, squints, and other expressions.

The edges flow in the direction of the most common movements. So you see here on the mouth all of these edges are looping around. That's because common expressions that the mouth takes pulls the skin either up towards the cheekbones or pursing the lips moves them down towards the lips and so when the edges are laid out in this direction, it's very easy to form all of these different expressions. Another thing to look for is obvious structures. Anatomy often has a clear direction to it.

Bones, limbs, and muscles can be indicators of where to place edge flow. So let's zoom out and look at the arms. Limbs are usually easy to figure out because they're based on cylinders. Unless there's some specific reason to make it more complicated, limbs on cartoony characters can be very straightforward. So we see this flow zone here for the forearm. I'm just going to look around at all different angles, and you can see the arm is really just a cylinder with some extra little lumps modeled into it here and there.

So you can really have a very straightforward flow zone, with edges just going straight down the arm and edges looping around the arm. Something else you can do is play Connect the Dots. Some parts of the anatomy will be harder to figure out than others. Do the simpler parts first and then see if you can bridge the harder spaces between them. We're going to model the head and the torso separately, so if you're not sure what the edge flow for the neck should look like, you can do the parts above it and below it and then just bridge the gap between the two.

Another good tip is to get ideas from looking at other people's models. Lots of professionals post their work online with edge flow visible. Study what they do, but understand that there's not just one right way to do it. In general, understand that there often isn't one single edge flow pattern that will work the best. You may have to test out the model with a rig or experiment with putting the character in different poses to see how well it works. I often go back to the drawing board because the edge flow that I've chosen needs a little tweaking.

The edge flow that we're using in this course is a generally good one that works for most humanoid characters. However, every character model is different and will require some variations to what I show here. Luckily for you, I'll be showing various ways of thinking about edge flow and tricks that will help you adapt what you learn here to many different situations. As you get better at character modeling, you'll certainly discover your own techniques, tricks, and ways to improve on the basics.

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