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Adding fascias and soffits

From: Creating Urban Game Environments in 3ds Max

Video: Adding fascias and soffits

Once we have the flat planes of a roof in place we need to add the elements that give us thickness at the edge or apparent thickness. In reality they are really built of planes of material and linear elements. For this roof I'm going to put a fascia on the outside and a soffit. The fascia is the board that caps the rafter ends, so it looks like a continuous edge. There is often a gutter or something similar over it. I'll also put a soffit underneath the roof. That way because the polygons in this roof face out, I have coverage underneath instead of a blank area.

Adding fascias and soffits

Once we have the flat planes of a roof in place we need to add the elements that give us thickness at the edge or apparent thickness. In reality they are really built of planes of material and linear elements. For this roof I'm going to put a fascia on the outside and a soffit. The fascia is the board that caps the rafter ends, so it looks like a continuous edge. There is often a gutter or something similar over it. I'll also put a soffit underneath the roof. That way because the polygons in this roof face out, I have coverage underneath instead of a blank area.

So in a game if I happen to duck into this doorway or next to the building and look up at the roof, I see what really should be there: a solid surface. To start with on this fascia I'll go into top view and change to a wireframe by pressing F3. With my Snap on at 2.5 I'll press Ctrl+Right-Click and choose Box. I'm going to make one piece of the roof fascia here and a soffit and then clone this all the way around to finish out this roof. I'll snap this first box across from corner-to-corner.

If you notice, the box has a Length of 0, a Height of 7 point whatever really, and a Width of exactly 192. That's the important part. Now I can change the Length to 2, and I'll put the Height at 8 for 2x8 rough lumber. I'll take this piece and snap it onto the edge of the roof, then look at in the left view and make sure it's up to the right height. Now I need to optimize this before I clone it. I'll right-click and choose Isolate Selection so I can see this a little bit easier.

I'll convert this to an Editable Poly and choose Polygon. We'll take out the ends of this so it's open. I'll also take out the top polygon so I'm basically left with the tall skinny U. Lastly, I'll take the inside vertex, which for me is here on the right, and I'll move it down by 2 or 3 inches. I use the Transform Type-In and on the Offset Y put in -2. That will give me some thickness up here in the soffit. That way it looks like the right dimension, that the roof isn't just a flat poly.

Now I can exit the Isolation Mode and in a top view adjust the miters. Remember that the dimension of this was 2 inches. That way I can choose these vertices, on the Transform Type-In put in -2 and get a perfect 45 here. I'll do this in the other side as well. In this case I'll move 2 over. I'm almost ready to clone, but I have one more element to complete.

All of my ridges and valleys meet at a 45. On a roof this is a hip-ridge, meets at a 45 degree angle. The valley where two roof planes come together is also at a 45. Occasionally this varies, but those roofs get pretty complex and require a set of plans to detail properly. This is a fairly simple roof. I'll look up underneath that soffit. Right now it's blank and I have the fascia. I can pick this top inside edge of my fascia and extrude it out.

I'll do this in the top view so I can put it exactly where I want it. Notice that I switch between wireframe and shaded and move my views around to get where I need. Don't be afraid to really zoom in. I'll right-click and choose Extrude. I'd like to use the dialog for this. That way I can reset the base Width down to 0 and a Width of 10 is just fine here. I'll check OK and then I'll pick this edge and move it down where I need to go. Next I'll pick the vertices, pressing 1 for vertex, grabbing this corner, and on the X axis snap it onto the building.

I'd like to use the Spacebar for Selection Lock. I'll release the Selection Lock by hitting the Spacebar and do this on the other side. Next I'll check this in the left view. Hitting Z for Zoom and making sure my soffit is flat. This worked nicely. Occasionally, we may need to snap it back down depending on which way it extruded. I'm ready to take this piece and clone it and stretch it around to my other roof elements. What I'll do now, probably in a shaded view so I can see what's going on, is duplicate, clone, rotate, and move this piece along with stretching it out along the roof.

With this fascia element complete I'm ready to clone it around the roof. I'll clone, rotate, and stretch as needed and in the interest of time, come back and show the completed roof. I stretched the fascia and cloned it around the roof. Now on any side of my roof it appears to have thickness. Now when I look up underneath it I have polygons there. We're working in a single-sided workflow. Notice that if I pick any particular object, right-click, and choose Object Properties and turn on Backface Cull, it's still there.

If I were to view this in the other side it would disappear, but there is a roof. My roof is complete. The important thing to remember when you're making roofs is that they need to look like they have thickness and we need to get the details right, because they do occupy a large part of the view of a building. They also tend to be down low especially sloped roofs like this on houses and such, and so there is a bigger chance for going to see them closer up in our game.

Show transcript

This video is part of

Image for Creating Urban Game Environments in 3ds Max
Creating Urban Game Environments in 3ds Max

78 video lessons · 6132 viewers

Adam Crespi
Author

 
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  1. 4m 47s
    1. Welcome
      55s
    2. Understanding the design process
      47s
    3. What you should know before watching this course
      14s
    4. Software requirements
      47s
    5. Using the exercise files
      2m 4s
  2. 14m 36s
    1. Identifying key contours and shadows in concept art
      1m 59s
    2. Analyzing concept art for texture
      2m 28s
    3. Choosing between modeling and texturing
      1m 43s
    4. Understanding the limitations of normal maps
      2m 26s
    5. Analyzing concept art for key shadow details
      3m 10s
    6. Identifying shadow details as generated or painted
      2m 50s
  3. 44m 57s
    1. Planning the visible overlaid history in a city
      3m 6s
    2. Planning a "wedding cake" building: Base, middle, and top
      2m 50s
    3. Planning a modern building: Base and shaft
      3m 1s
    4. Designing the zoning: Planning the visible uses of buildings
      6m 43s
    5. Laying out city blocks
      2m 36s
    6. Planning modular textures and geometry: Streets and sidewalks
      4m 1s
    7. Texturing intersections
      3m 13s
    8. Modeling modular curbs, gutters, and ramps
      5m 7s
    9. Modeling modular street elements
      3m 14s
    10. Modeling corners with ramps
      5m 56s
    11. Unwrapping sidewalk elements
      5m 10s
  4. 38m 9s
    1. Laying out rectangles and planning how to clone geometry and texture
      4m 59s
    2. Using layers to organize construction elements and actual models
      3m 51s
    3. Extruding edges to form major shadow lines
      5m 17s
    4. Testing the module for correct floor-to-floor heights
      1m 41s
    5. Trimming down the module and cloning
      4m 10s
    6. Stretching the vertical elements to minimize geometry
      7m 10s
    7. Unwrapping the elements for correct proportion
      7m 48s
    8. Laying out a texture sheet for a façade
      3m 13s
  5. 39m 50s
    1. Making brick texture
      6m 23s
    2. Adding detail to the diffuse texture: Sills and arches
      4m 24s
    3. Adding stone accents
      7m 47s
    4. Layering color in window frames and doorways
      8m 39s
    5. Copying diffuse layers for normal map foundations
      2m 7s
    6. Desaturating the diffuse map copies and prepping for normal maps
      3m 42s
    7. Converting bump maps to normal maps using nDO
      6m 48s
  6. 1h 2m
    1. Analyzing the necessary silhouette and geometry
      5m 24s
    2. Examining existing buildings in different lighting conditions
      3m 8s
    3. Planning cornice elements
      3m 32s
    4. Extruding cornice elements from polygon edges
      9m 12s
    5. Assigning smoothing groups for optimal shading
      4m 31s
    6. Unwrapping cornices for lighting
      8m 43s
    7. Modeling sloped roofs
      7m 16s
    8. Adding fascias and soffits
      5m 21s
    9. Adding fascias and soffits for gable ends
      7m 31s
    10. Texture sheets for roofs
      8m 1s
  7. 13m 55s
    1. Arranging, aligning, and cloning modular elements
      3m 26s
    2. Setting pivot points for buildings
      5m 48s
    3. Reusing elements: Exploring possibilities in modular building design
      4m 41s
  8. 40m 3s
    1. Creating a texture library
      36s
    2. Creating rusty corrugated metal texture
      7m 53s
    3. Creating stone texture
      4m 42s
    4. Creating wood texture
      9m 50s
    5. Creating rough brick texture
      7m 44s
    6. Creating roads
      9m 18s
  9. 38m 44s
    1. Using the Walkthrough Assistant to assess texture needs
      4m 46s
    2. Drawing detail at the right size
      3m 30s
    3. Understanding tiling and non-tiling textures
      2m 57s
    4. Deciding when to use tiling and non-tiling textures
      3m 2s
    5. Using multiple mapping coordinates
      4m 3s
    6. Using multiple unwrap modifiers
      6m 47s
    7. Unwrapping objects a second time: Planning an unwrap for a light map
      7m 46s
    8. Unwrapping a building façade using overlapping texture elements
      5m 53s
  10. 30m 25s
    1. Understanding ambient occlusion
      1m 50s
    2. Assessing the quality of occlusion as a cinematic mood
      2m 48s
    3. Overview of the Ambient Occlusion shader
      5m 9s
    4. Baking maps using the Render To Texture dialog
      3m 15s
    5. Using occlusion as a foundation for dirt
      5m 28s
    6. Using occlusion from detailed models for texture
      5m 54s
    7. Baking lighting
      6m 1s
  11. 25m 18s
    1. Preparing for Unity as a world builder
      2m 26s
    2. Importing into Unity and recognizing limitations
      4m 12s
    3. Importing elements with detailed materials
      5m 59s
    4. Setting optimal texture sizes and resizing in Unity
      3m 12s
    5. Setting up a naming convention and scene management
      7m 40s
    6. Renaming tools in 3ds Max
      1m 49s
  12. 1m 21s
    1. What's next
      1m 21s

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